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A /r/cscareerquestions College Survival Guide

A /cscareerquestions College Survival Guide

With our final school year beginning, we were reflecting on how lost and confused we were when we first started university. We made a lot of mistakes (still am) along the way, but we’re in a much better place after learning from them and constantly putting ourselves out there. In hopes of shining some light and helping others, we decided to make a comprehensive guide for university students – based on our knowledge/experiences - on how to start your successful CS Career (or gain the wisdom to avoid CS altogether, more on this later).
rishiss Background: I am a 4th year student at UC Irvine majoring in Software Engineering. I am an incoming Software Engineer at a F100 company (received return offer after interning this summer). Before that, I interned at an R & D center for space, a small cloud company, and a small IT company. I have a 3.65 GPA, won a few awards at startup competitions/hackathons, and remain pretty active in my schools CS organizations.
chaitu65c Background: I’m a 4th year student at UC Irvine majoring in Computer Science. I’m currently a SWE Intern at a Unicorn and just wrapped up my 2nd internship at a Live Streaming Company(you can most likely tell who they are if you browse my history LOL). Before this, I interned at my school’s IT department, did research under a professor, and worked on a few small startups that other UCI students were building. I have a 3.3 GPA, won some awards along rishiss and was pretty active in my school’s CS clubs.
Disclaimer: “But rishiss/ and chaitu65c, you don’t work at a Big N, go to a target CS school, why should I take your advice?” You’re absolutely right; we are, by no means, ‘up there’ like some other folks on this sub. And, you don’t have to take our advice! Simply close this tab and do whatever else you want 😊. Our intent is to guide and prepare uni students for a CS career they enjoy, not work at Big N or get the highest TC. Life is much more than a dick-measuring contest, and the earlier you learn that the better.
We have also created a guide with our own personal advice/stories

Please, take this advice with a grain of salt. we’re not Tony Robinson or Tim Apple, we’re just two random reddit users.

Table of Contents:

This guide is divided into the following sections:

Is CS Right For Me?

The way we see it, there’s 3 types of people pursuing CS.
  1. Those who know CS isn’t for them – They’re in it for the money, to appease their parents, for a minorequirement, some external factor. They hated programming while taking the introductory CS course and just try to get done with their class/degree ASAP.
Advice: The majority of people who fall under this usually burn out quickly, as they aren’t motivated enough to learn the material and to apply themselves. This usually leads to them cheating and getting kicked out of their major, minor, or university altogether. Even if you manage to earn a degree, we've seen a large number of these folks endure a 'pre-mature' mid-life crisis or simply get fired from their jobs. Before you even start this major, you should definitely understand that this isn’t going to be easy, and you do have to put in a lot of effort to succeed. If this isn’t your cup of tea, definitely look into switching into another major you like.
Some folks are really passionate about technology, but don't want to pursue an entire Computer Science major or see themselves as Software Engineers. That's completely ok! Try looking into related majors or minors. We know many students who switched from CS to majors like Informatics, Business Information Management, and Economics and are thriving in tech-related roles like Data Analytics, Product Management, UI/UX Design, and Technical Recruiting. CS is not (and should not be) for everyone, and there is no shame in having the wisdom quit and move on.
  1. Those who don’t know if CS is for them – Where most of the CS community is IMO. These folks (like me, rishiss) are riddled with something called Imposter Syndrome: “the constant feeling of not being good enough or knowing enough to do your job well.”
Advice: For students, really take the time to learn and be open to anything you go through. Try sticking it out until you've taken a Data Structures course, one of the harder, more important courses out there. If you're not understanding the material or just aren't having fun with it, it’s definitely ok to switch majors/careers. Otherwise, CS just might be the career for you! Give it your best shot!
Admittedly, it's hard to provide stronger insight to overcoming Imposter Syndrome, as I am afflicted by it as well. For me, my IS derives from constantly comparing myself to others and confusing inexperience with incompetency. As such, I continue to work and focus on myself and take baby steps towards smaller goals I set out for myself. Knowing that I've put the effort to improve myself by just 1% everyday has made me a lot more confident.
  1. Those who know for a fact CS is for them – The diamonds in the rough. Learning and practicing CS material gives them a euphoric high.
Advice: Broaden your scope and learn new areas of CS! Who knows, you might find another new field that you really want to work in. Other than that, definitely make new friends regardless of whether they’re a CS major or not. Even try pursuing other hobbies like weightlifting, reading, dancing, or even public speaking. Don't limit yourself!

Freshman Year

We recommend not taking more than 3-4 classes in your first quartesemester, as you shouold keep an ample amount of time to go to professional/social events, make new friends and hang out with them, and pursue your interests.
We've seen a lot of freshmen (and upperclassmen) CS folks get cooped up in their dorm rooms playing video games and watching TV. We understand that these two are a passion for many, but please be cautious to not get consumed by them.
You have the privilege of pursuing higher education, making valuable connections/memories, and setting up your CS career in the trajectory you want. This year is the best year to take advantage of all that university has to offer; make the most of it.
One of the best ways to get involved in your school’s/region’s CS community is by joining clubs like ACM and WICS and participating in hackathons (see ‘Hackathon’ section below). Try pursuing internships and positions in these organizations and events as well!
One, major issue we see with freshmen (even upperclassmen) is their ignorance on all the avenues available in the CS Industry. So we’ve tried to narrow it down (not exhaustive).
  1. Cyber Security Engineer
  2. Front-End Web Developer
  3. Backend Web Developer
  4. UI/UX Designer
  5. DevOps/Cloud/Site-Reliability Engineers
  6. Mobile Engineer
  7. QA Engineer
  8. Product Manager
  9. Data Scientist (Machine Learning/AI)
  10. Embedded Software Engineer
  11. Systems Administrator
  12. Database Administrator (The Wizards)
  13. Networking Engineer
  14. Hardware Engineer
  15. OS Developer
  16. Video Game Developer
  17. Solutions Architect/Sales EngineeTechnical Account Manager
As a freshman, definitely take the time and see if you can picture yourself doing any of the listed fields. You should open yourself to all facets of CS and not just the “hot field” like Data Science and Machine Learning. Choosing a field because it’s “exciting” will usually lead to bad results as usually, other people are thinking just like you and will lead to over-saturation.
Our recommendation is to select the top 5 fields that have piqued your interest and experiment with the field. For example, if you are interested in Mobile App Development, try learning how to build an Android app from the ground up. A simple weather app or alarm clock is completely suitable for a first project/prototype. This lets you understand what skills you would need for this field and can serve as a forecast as to what your career would look like.
You should definitely look for an internship. Ignore the people that tell you to wait until you’re a junior, as it’s going to be very hard to get an internship if you don’t have any experience. Common places that most students don’t realize are available are usually IT departments at your school and even research with professors. Researching is highly recommended as you can definitely learn more about a field you can be interested in and if you’re interested in graduate school, that’s going to be a letter of recommendation that you can ask for.
If you’re considered a minority in Computer Science, look into first and second year internship programs as they’re meant to help you succeed. Here’s some programs that come to mind:
Google STEP
Microsoft Explore
Amazon Future Engineer
Uber STARInternhip
Facebook University
Another way to get internships is to research into smaller companies in your area. If the company is very small (<100 employees), consider reaching out to the CEO on LinkedIn. They might be able to help you! Also, take advantage of university recruiting websites like Handshake to see companies that directly hire from your school. More info on how to get an internship in the ‘Searching for an Internship’ section.

Sophomore Year

Now that you have basic programming knowledge, create your own website or GitHub account and start contributing to them with small personal projects. Nobody expects you to make a full-stack MERN project hosted and scaled on AWS at this stage. Focus instead on clean code, learning a framework or two on a language you like, and creating a small, robust feature. Grow from there!
If you weren’t able to find an internship/research opportunity as a freshman, community involvement, projects, and hackathons become especially important, as they are a great way to make you stand out on your resume and to recruiters when you reapply. As you brush up on your skills, apply again, and try your luck out.

Data Structures and Algorithms

In addition, you are most likely to take a Data Structures and Algorithms course this year. Make sure you are focusing on this class and writing good notes; you will need this knowledge when interviewing for internships and full-time jobs in the near future. Here is a link to our DS and A course (in C++) for reference

Junior Year

As a junior, companies are more willing to hire you for an internship, as they are likely to convert you into a full-time employee after graduating. This transition process is much easier than interviewing, and they'll usually offer you a higher compensation package if they want to convert you to a full-time employee. As you now should have knowledge of Data Structures and Algorithms, we highly recommend looking into coding interview prep sites like LeetCode and HackerRank or purchasing a prep book like CTCI or EPI (advanced).
Continue to attend hackathons, remain active in clubs/organizations, and grow your portfolio.
Classes will be much harder; expect the time for completing projects to double and the content covered to be much more difficult. We recommend taking no more than 2-3 upper-division CS courses and balancing your load with 1-2 GE classes. You should not be taking more than 16 units (assuming 4 units per course).
Start to get an idea of what field in CS you would like to pursue. Research what it takes to be successful in that field. You can do so by looking up job postings with that title on LinkedIn and looking at the requested skill set or take a look at Roadmap.sh. If you want to learn more about a related skill set and your school doesn't offer a course, consider picking up a class on udemy.com.

Senior Year

Focus heavily on your senior capstone, project classes, etc. as they're the last thing you can put on your resume before applying for full time. By now, you should have at least 3 polished, working projects on your GitHub that you can easily talk about with your recruiter. Preferably, they're aligned with the CS field you wish to enter.
If you were able to get a return offer from an internship, congrats! However, don’t immediately sign the offer. Once you have an offer, you should still try to interview at companies that you’re interested in by the deadline of the time to accept the offer. A good way of doing this is to reach out to a University recruiter for that company and explain the deadline you have. Usually, they’re really helpful and can potentially help skip interviews that you were supposed to do!
In addition, if your friends were able to intern at places you’re interested in, definitely ask for a referral or to send your resume to their recruiter. This usually reduces the risk of being ghosted by that company and increases your chances of getting hired!
Once you finally sign, definitely take the time to relax and enjoy. Just make sure you pass your classes and stay out of trouble

Classes:

What Classes should I take?

Should Already be Required:

Must Take:

Good to Have

How do I succeed in these classes?

rishiss: You’re more than likely coughing up hundreds, if not thousands, to attend university. It makes no sense to not take full advantage of the course and course staff.
The way I take notes: I learn from examples; I want to enter my code into the IDE to see what happens. I do a three way split; Google Docs on the left, IDE on top right and terminal (to compile, see output, make new file, etc) on bottom left. I note down the date and topic of the lecture and write questions I have in the comments on Docs. I make sure to highlight important information and possible test questions. I even share the link with friends!

In the quarters where I followed the steps above, I never got a grade lower than an A-.

Dealing with Bad Professors

During your time in college, you’re likely going to have at least one bad professor that might make it worse if you have to go to class. If that’s the case, it’s definitely fine to not go to class (as long as it’s not mandatory). However, if you do decide not to go, you must make sure you learn the material, so you won’t be behind on the coursework and studying for tests. In addition, you should be doing something productive on the side. If you don’t go to class and spend the time watching Netflix or playing video games, you’re losing time that you can spend on something that might be fun and can help you in the long run.

You can take Graduate Courses!?

chaitu65c: A highly underutilized set of courses you can take would be graduate courses. Graduate courses are usually very specialized in certain fields. If you were able to take all the undergraduate courses you wanted and still have spare classes to fill out, I'd recommend researching into taking Graduate courses! They’re a good way to build out your specialization and learn new, cool stuff! In addition, if you’re looking for classes to reach the required number of CS courses needed, your CS department might allow you to make the course count towards your degree!

Projects

They're super important.

How do I succeed in class projects?

Personal Projects and your CS Career

rishiss: Projects are your saving grace, especially if you are lacking work experience. They show technical aptitude, willingness to take initiative, and leadership. I’ve seen people with only projects on their resume get positions at the Big N. Projects are good ways to expand your knowledge of CS as the possibilities are endless! It is best to have a variety of projects dealing with a variety of technologies. As such, you can open yourself up to more positions and have more talking points during the interview.
I tend to edit the ‘Project’ Section of my resume with relevant projects and technologies. For instance, if I made a full stack web application and applied to a DevOps organization, I would highlight my AWS, CI/CD, and Terraform experiences more than my React/Node js work.
It is recommend the project is about something that motivates you and are passionate about e.g. video games, movies, books, sports, etc., as it is very easy to give up half way due to stress or lack of motivation/interest.
Like anything else in Computer Science, projects require you to break it down into smaller pieces. Start with the end in mind and draw out the intended architecture/functionalities. Start with what you know and research on the parts you don't know after that. You will be using these skills often in industry for any project/feature planning.
Spending 15-30 minutes a day is all you need to make a successful personal project. Don't make excuses and get coding!

Open Source Contributions

If you’ve ever noticed popular github repositories such as torvalds/linux, these are repositories where people from all over the world can report issues with it and someone can fix it. If you are able to make a contribution to a huge open source repository, it looks really good on your resume.

Hackathons

What are Hackathons?

Hackathons are large scale coding events, where students from around the area come together and collaborate - usually in teams of 4 (but you can go solo or with a partner!) - to build some software. Companies like Amazon, Northrop Grumman, Google, and Twilio sponsor awards related to best use of their technology. After 24 - 48 hours of intensive coding, participants submit their projects, whether it be an Android video game, Chrome Extension, productivity web app, etc. Submissions are shared with the companies and other hackathon organizers, where they select the best projects and award teams with swag like keyboards, gift cards, and even summer internships at their company.
Participating in hackathons are one of the best ways to hone your coding skills, network with companies and other students, and get free comfy T-shirts. It is also one of the best ways to gain industry knowledge, as representatives from these companies and hackathon organizers create numerous workshops and answer any questions you may have. Winning awards at these hackathons are also great resume boosters and talking points during interviews.
The biggest hackathon organizer is Major League Hacking. Visit their website, and you can see all the hackathons (remote or local) they are partnered with. Make to be on the lookout for application release dates from the hackathons and apply early.
With Covid, you may miss out on the free goodies and the in-person networking with students and professionals. However, most hackathons are accepting many more applicants due to it being virtual/remote this year.

What Should I Do At Hacakathons?

Take advantage of the resources available at hackathons. You’re attending a mini CS conference and should be, besides coding, networking with professionals, learning about the different companies, attending workshops, asking technical/non-technical questions to mentors, and getting as much free shit as you can get. Besides T-Shirts, companies give out vouchers to their services, applications to their internship and full-time positions, pillows, notebooks, water bottles, sweaters, and even backpacks.
If you’re looking to get an award, judges at hackathons care a lot about the pitch and the idea rather than the actual execution of the idea. Having an idea beforehand is also helpful, so you can spend your time focusing on the MVP.

Friends and Networking

chaitu65c: I think it’s definitely useful if you have two different friend groups: One dedicated to career and Non-Career Group.
Career Group - When making a friend group dedicated to career, try to be the dumbest person in the group, you’re definitely going to learn a lot from them as you soak up knowledge! Best ways of meeting friends who are career-driven can be through major specific orientation (actually how I met rishiss), courses, major related clubs, etc.
Non-Career Group - While having a group that motivates you for your career is important, it’s also important to have another friend group that can help you relax and to enjoy your time! A really good way to find these friend groups can be anywhere from your hall to General Education courses, social clubs like Circle K, fraternities/ sororities(if that’s your cup of tea) and others!
This is what has worked for us; no need to follow this exact format.

Resume

rishiss: Here are the few take-aways on writing a resume that gets through the ATS.

Searching for Internships

Searching for internships in CS is really different and harder from searching for internships in other professions. CS internship interview processes are often longer and much more technical on what you have learned as a CS major. We've prepped 2-3 months beforehand on CS concepts, whiteboarding, etc.

Timeline

This timeline primarily focuses on large, non-government/defense companies or competitive startups. This also assume you are applying for a summer internship.
August - September: Applications are opened to the public. Make sure to look out for positions and apply early, as most companies admit students on a rolling basis. A site that we used often is Apply.fyi. After applying, you may receive an automated (< 48 hours) invitation to complete an Online Assessment, consisting of multiple choice and/or coding questions about Data Structures, Algorithms, and Run Time Complexity. You will have usually 1-2 weeks to complete the assessment. Please that you may be rejected if you are not able to pass 90% of the questions on the assessment: Please also note that you may be instantly rejected due to things out of your control like years of experience, cancellation of internship, internal corporate issues, and more. Don't take rejections too seriously; just keep applying!
October - November: After passing the resume screen and the OA, you will be contacted by the company's recruiter for a phone screen. During the screen, you will probably be asked a few confirmation questions about your resume, sponsorship, years of experience with X, etc. and minor behavioral questions like what made you apply for this position, what are you pursuing outside of class, etc. You may also receive questions about your CS fundamentals e.g. what is a hashtable, whats the difference between a process and a thread, what is the runtime complexity of sorting a string, etc. As long as you're cool and confident (and not cringe/edgy), this part should be a breeze.
November - Mid January: If you made it through the two Thanos snaps, you will be invited to an onsite “Power-Day,” where interviewees attend 2-4 whiteboard interviews while being grilled on their technical skills and projects. Some companies make applicants go through a panel interview, where a team of 2-5 Software Engineers grill you on technical questions and your resume. You are often pampered with free travel, food, stipends, etc.
December - February: If you were deemed a good fit by the hiring committee, you will be extended an offer to intern at the company during the upcoming summer for 10-12 weeks. Remember, nothing is final until you receive an offer letter in your inbox. Some companies may also place you on a wait-list and offer you a spot if someone were to reject their offer letter.
For government orgs, defense companies, and smaller organizations, the recruiting season starts in February/March and usually ends in April and May. After applying online and passing the resume screen, you will usually be immediately pushed to an on-site interview. Most likely, you will be interviewing with your future boss/co-worker.
Please note that internships are not only offered in the summer, they are provided in the Fall, Winter, and Spring (rare) as well. The competition for these internships is usually lower, and the process usually starts 3-4 months beforehand.

How to get the Interview

Besides following resume tips, make sure to apply to as many places as you can. To get our first internships, we recall applying to approximately 250-300 places before we secured our internship plans for that summer. Also, if you do get ghosted, don’t take it personally, usually, university recruiters often spend so much time reviewing a lot of applications.
Other precautions to take to get noticed are to try attending career fairs if you can, you might be able to get an interview(worst case, free swag!). Other than that, try reaching out to upperclassmen or friends you know that interned and ask for referrals. It’s one of the best ways to get noticed!

What to expect

As part of the interview process, there’s 4 types of interviews that you should make sure you know.
Behavioral Interview: These interviews ask you questions about culture fit such as “Why are you a good candidate” and “Tell me about a time when you ...”
Coding/Technical Interview: These interviews ask you questions similar to what you see on Leetcode and Hackerrank. These interviews are designed to test your Data Structures and Algorithms knowledge.
System Design: System Design involves the interviewer testing your building to design a service/software and test your knowledge of understanding what things to use for the task and how you will integrate them together. You’re definitely not expected to know this and it’s not likely you’re gonna get asked this. Places that could ask you this are Unicorns, Trading Companies and Hedge Funds, and Big Established Companies.
Concurrency/Low Level Interviews: If the company’s biggest product involves low level principles such as networking principles and kernel stuff, there’s a possibility you can get asked this. Places that come to mind are hardware companies and trading firms.
Some companies may adopt only one of these interviews and some may adopt all.

How to Ace the Interview

It’s highly recommended that you look up the interview experiences that other students have faced so that you can potentially filter out companies with red flags and know what questions to expect. Common sources to search up on this would be Reddit (csMajors and cscareerquestions), Jumpstart (Relatively new portal for students), Glassdoor and maybe Blind (Aside from the toxic TC or GTFO culture, they do give good advice on interviews). With that said, here’s some advice we have when you approach each kind of interview we’ve seen.

Advice on Behavioral Interviews

Use the STAR method when describing your experiences. Being quantifiable with the impact of your actions will impress the interviewer.

Advice on Technical Interviews

Begin by reviewing your notes from the Data Structures and Algorithms class. Do not proceed further until you know how to implement these DS and As from scratch with the language of your choice(If you do know python, it’s recommended as there’s a lot of builtin features!). After doing so, we highly recommend a book like CTCI and EPI to gain a review on programming language details and your DS and As. Then, visit sites like LeetCode to practice real questions from major companies. A Facebook Engineer completed 600 LC problems and compiled the most important ones into a list here. During the interview, make sure to talk out loud about possible approaches and tradeoffs before whiteboarding. It is perfectly acceptable (often recommended) to ask the interviewer to ask questions about the problem and get clarification. Once you have an idea in mind and have talked about it with your interviewer, begin whiteboarding. While you talk about the final idea you want to use, write out pseudo code and comments about all the steps you need to implement in order to finish coding your solution. After that, start coding. Make sure to have proper function headers, syntax, spacing, classes/structs, imports, etc. After coding your solution, give a brief explanation and attempt to make it run with less space and in less time (if your solution is not as efficient as you think it can be).

Advice on System Design

These are somewhat hard to approach if you don’t have experience ever doing it. If you do have experience designing and building services in your spare time and as part of your work experience, definitely rely on your experience. An important thing is to definitely ask clarifying questions. There might be hidden requirements you didn’t think about that could drastically change the way you approach the solution.

Advice on Concurrency/Low level

Understand basic principles such as Processes vs Threads (A lot of people don’t know the difference!)TCP vs UDP and how to make an application thread safe. Other than that, it’s recommended that you familiarize yourself with basic OS concepts such as Deadlocks, locks that you can utilize to make an application thread safe, etc.

Searching for Full Time Jobs:

The big bucks.
The process for finding a Full-Time Job is usually very similar to finding an Internship. There’s three main differences are:
  1. Harder Questions. Ex: Google usually asks Leetcode Mediums to Hards + the special Leetcode Hard question that Google asks it’s applicants (they create a new one every year).
  2. More Rounds of Interviewing: For example, Microsoft makes interns do 2 rounds while New Grads do 4 rounds during the onsite part of the process.
  3. Compensation: Interns usually get an hourly rate and, possibly, a housing stipend. New grads, however, are given a yearly salary and, possibly, a sign-on bonus, stocks, and benefits e.g. health insurance, vacation days, etc.
The process for finding a Full-time Job won’t really change as much as finding an internship, but keep in mind that the bar is higher. This is probably the biggest reason why you should look into interning early; by getting an offer at the place you like, you don’t need to go through the daunting process of finding a full-time role.
Get as many offers as you can this time around, so you can negotiate and select the position, company, compensation, and location that works best for you.

Negotiation

Negotiation is a really powerful tool that you can use in the interview process, even as an intern. There’s a lot of guides to negotiation and we recommend Nick Singh’s guide (Look at his LinkedIn and newsletters) for more.

Final Thoughts

University is a probably the most important time of your life and a foundational block of your CS Career. Like any foundation, it must be sturdy and takes a tremendous amount and energy of time to develop. Take advantage of all the resources (like this one) you can get your hands on. Definitely learn from the mistakes people have made and make sure you don’t repeat the same mistakes.
‘Stay hungry. Stay foolish’ - Steve Jobs
submitted by rishiss to cscareerquestions [link] [comments]

Price Oracle - A Must Have Infrastructure

Price Oracle - A Must Have Infrastructure

Overview

With the exponential growth of decentralized finance protocols over the past 12 months and the growing interest from other corners of the cryptocurrency market to DeFi, we have witnessed a tremendous shift in crypto market narrative from centralized to decentralized finance.
However, for DeFi to truly achieve its goal to disrupt traditional finance and transform the entire financial industry to be more efficient and transparent, the space still has a long way to go. And one of the key obstacles that it needs to overcome to inch closer to this goal is the oracle problem.

Price Oracle: A must-have infrastructure

The problem with the blockchain world is that Dapps cannot directly communicate with off-chain information to enable further innovations such as dispute settlement, liquidation, risk management which all require off-chain data to be fed into the smart contract. This is where price oracles serve as an essential component of the DeFi space - price oracles are the “connectors” between the on-chain and off-chain worlds, delivering data generated by real-life, off-chain events on-chain and thus trigger a series of smart contract execution.
Decentralized financial services offered by the current mainstream DeFi platforms such as MakerDAO, Compound, dYdX, etc. rely heavily on the price oracles to provide the data necessary to carry out smart contract operations such as determining liquidation prices, margin trading, and lending. Price oracles act as a reliable source of information to feed these critical data to these DeFi platforms. As such, price oracles are an integral part of the decentralized financial services infrastructure.

Problems With Current Oracles

Decentralized finance is unconventional, and we have observed a few differences when comparing it with the traditional finance industry.

Lack of viable options to conduct proper risk management

In traditional finance, when institutions talk about investing, trading or having market exposure, the first thing they think of is usually risks. Quantifiable risks form the foundation of the financial market and are crucial for market participants to make informed investment decisions. In DeFi, however, we have barely seen any analysis and recognition of such risks, not to mention incorporating quantifiable risks into the DeFi infrastructure. In other words, as of today, market participants have not been able to comprehensively understand risks in DeFi, nor can they properly calculate and hedge them.

Time in the on-chain world is discrete rather than continuous, measured on a block by block basis

In the off-chain world, time elapses continuously and the market has evolved over time into having a complicated price discovery mechanism based on the continuous timeline. As such, a market’s price discovery is almost always more efficient in the centralized world than the decentralized one.
However, in the on-chain world, time elapses discretely and the smallest unit of time in the blockchain world is known as the block time.
Due to this time structural difference, we argue that DeFi applications should not compete with their centralized counterparts for being the destination of price discovery. Instead, these applications should bring their unique competitive advantages to the game, creating exclusive experiences in the decentralized world. Unfortunately, the current DeFi ecosystem is still building infrastructure based on the centralized mindset.

Existing designs of automated market makers (AMMs) rely on arbitrageurs to ensure that prices on AMM DEXs do not deviate from actual market prices

Because the traditional financial market has become fairly efficient through years of evolution, arbitrage opportunities are hard to come by. However, the current AMM-based DEXs heavily rely on arbitrageurs to help approximate true market prices, implying an inefficiency in the design of the DeFi infrastructure.

Liquidity providers (LPs) are not compensated enough for having market exposure on volatile assets

There are various market frictions in the centralized trading world such as latency and transaction fees. These frictions are also true in the decentralized world, and DeFi LPs are not being compensated enough for bearing the cost incurred by these frictions.
Given the concerns listed above, we believe that the blockchain infrastructure, specifically price oracles, should be built upon the following design principles.
a) Enable computable risks
b) Consider time as discrete rather than continuous, with the smallest unit of time as blocks
c) Meet the non-arbitrage condition
d) Incorporate time delay, market volatility and transaction costs when compensating the LPs

Overview of the Price Oracle Sector

The demand for oracles heightened in recent months as more DeFi protocols are being launched.
As seen in the charts below, between May 1, 2020 and September 1, 2020, the 30-days rolling gas fee for oracle project Chainlink showed a 32.2x surge, while the standard gas fee on the Ethereum blockchain only jumped by 26.9x during the same time period.

https://preview.redd.it/dlig90jfs4s51.png?width=1146&format=png&auto=webp&s=f7a44786dcb6d4c58c28b1dd81dfb4a5dc7b69b6
Chainlink and another oracle project, NEST Protocol, were among the top 10 Ethereum gas gazers on September 1, 2020, ranked #5 and #7 respectively. Both protocols rose to prominence within a short period of time - on May 1, 2020, Chainlink was ranked #11 while NEST Protocol was not on the list.

https://preview.redd.it/behcnqlgs4s51.png?width=436&format=png&auto=webp&s=f290e8adc94e9d90f079500e068b00c18f6c869a
The gas distribution during the period between August 15, 2020 and September 15, 2020 also shows that NEST Protocol and Chainlink are the only two non-DEX projects in the top 10 Ethereum gas usage leaderboard (excluding Tether USD and SmartWay Forsage, which is a pyramid scheme).
Unlike in yield farming, there is limited hype in the oracle sector, especially with NEST Protocol. Even with the recent DeFi hype, the google search index of keyword “blockchain oracle” was near zero for 80% of the days over the past three months. Being the must have infrastructure in the industry together with a low google search index, implying huge potential for further development.

https://preview.redd.it/v20nvsphs4s51.png?width=1642&format=png&auto=webp&s=5a196d4b1947b52b2678964c2157c3deb8aff062

Oracle protocol review

There are essentially two types of oracles, centralized and decentralized ones.
Coinbase Price Oracle is a notable example of a centralized oracle. It takes Coinbase Pro’s API as the data source, then excludes data points with significant deviation. DeFi projects wishing to request data feeds can make calls to Coinbase Price Oracle with public key verification enabled.
Although centralized oracle is an easy way to fulfil the off/on-chain data gap, we have only seen a few DeFi projects utilising it, largely due to security concerns - an attacker can control the oracle data sources and then broadcast malicious information to a smart contract that relies on the data, thus contaminating the decentralized trading environment.
On the other hand, decentralized oracles have been widely accepted by the DeFi ecosystem. DeFi applications such as lending, derivatives, and some DEXs all need a reliable oracle to access price data in order for them to function properly and fairly.

https://preview.redd.it/97tguk0js4s51.png?width=1100&format=png&auto=webp&s=e22c02444cb16c8852ef0f9b114125c098fdee21
In this report, we investigate four decentralized oracle projects: Chainlink, NEST Protocol, Band Protocol, and Tellor, each of which have been created based on various design principles and with different levels of decentralization.

https://preview.redd.it/npdbbyzjs4s51.png?width=1136&format=png&auto=webp&s=44e89b76f796f6034c25d9be432b5f08c664dac8
· Chainlink provides price feeds for 55 trading pairs, including 30 fiat pairs. More than $2.3B locked values in crypto assets are referencing Chainlink price oracle as of September 14, 2020.
· Band Protocol aims to provide a price feed service on multiple public chains, including Ethereum, Polkadot, and Cosmos. Beyond cryptocurrencies, Band Protocol can also connect to trusted data sources (i.e., weather, lottery, and unemployment rate) through traditional Web APIs with customised oracle script.
· Tellor takes the old fashion Proof of Work (PoW) method combined with the staking concept to maintain data quality. Users can request data by adding TRB token as a tip.
In a macro view, the three oracles mentioned above have structured their price generation model as shown in the process below.

https://preview.redd.it/ojsbko9ls4s51.png?width=1272&format=png&auto=webp&s=6ca1cb464d82478d01002e8e5ac744c7175211b3
Due to the on-chain validating requirement, these decentralized oracles may fail to update when the market experiences extreme volatility, like the one on Black Thursday, due to network congestion and extreme market conditions.
The process of on-chain validation needs voting by transaction, which consumes extremely high gas fees during peak blockchain network activities. Even if sufficiently high gas fee has been utilised, voting can still encounter blockchain propagation issues.
NEST Protocol, on the other hand, proposes a different way to solve the problem of providing prices on-chain through a decentralized incentive solution called quotation mining. In a nutshell, the quotation mining system consists of two types of participants
1: Makers which consist of miners and verifiers
2: Callers. Anyone can become a miner to provide quotation and pay commissions in return to receive NEST tokens. On the other hand, verifiers can challenge the miner’s quotation by staking 2x equivalent amounts of asset to update the price if the previous quotation price deviates from the true market price.
Each of the current DeFi projects brings some elements from traditional finance to smart contracts, with the lending sector considered to be the largest by total value locked as shown on the left. However, we argue that the majority price oracles are too centralized which only report data on short tail assets. Out of the top 100 cryptocurrencies on Coingecko which have a combined value of $328B, roughly 22% of the $328B assets has not yet been reported by decentralised oracles.

https://preview.redd.it/r9pi0fjvs4s51.png?width=1140&format=png&auto=webp&s=f4adb0fd728ca5fb26b200836d32724704cdea79
We believe the DeFi ecosystem should not pick and choose on what asset data should be reported by the price oracles. Instead, these decisions should be made by the community. However, when reporting data on long tail assets, we run into the problem of attacks. The maximum penalty to maliciously attack an oracle node by reporting incorrect price data is the amount of assets that the attacker staked. The monetary value could be significantly less than the potential profit earned if a successful attack can be executed, generating an incentive for malicious attackers to exploit the protocol.
NEST protocol presents a properly designed structure to eliminate these potential attack vendors. A malicious attacker may tamper with a normal quotation price, however, the attacker must stake 2x the amount of assets in order to challenge the previous quotation price. The attacker either leaves significant arbitrage opportunities to the market or must continue to self report and continue staking 2x of the previous amount of assets in order to sustain the attack. The costs of an attack can become exponentially large within an hour of the attack and raise to almost the total number of ETH in the entire market. This design makes NEST protocol attack resistance in the sense that it can completely eliminate dishonest players in the system.

Price feed comparison

Oracles are in charge of price feeds. The donut chart below demonstrates a simple comparison about methods for oracles to generate data and how those data are validated. Chainlink uses price data from nodes with LINK tokens as collateral. Though anyone can run a Chainlink node, the Reference Data Feed is generated still by permission. Currently, Chainlink has 21 trusted parties for its ETH-USD pair with 0.5% deviation threshold.
In Tellor's ecosystem, users can request price feeds by giving TRB tokens as incentives. Miners quote price with PoW competition; and the median of the first five price feeds will be saved on-chain. Users are able to dispute the price feeds within one day after price feed generation.
NEST Protocol allows miners to participate quotation mining by staking base token and quote token with an off-chain price; i.e., staking 10 ETH with $3,800 USDT means Ethereum (ETH) has a current market price of $380. The arbitrager (Taker) can challenge the quoted price by performing a swap for both ETH and USDT within 25 blocks (i.e., T0 ~ 5 mins) if the arbitrager believes that the price quoted by the miner is incorrect.
In the meantime, the arbitrager needs to provide an updated quote and stake 2x amount of asset. When no one challenges the quotation price within 25 blocks, effectively meaning that the price meets the non-arbitrage condition, this quotation price then becomes the NEST- price, which can then be used by other DeFi applications. On the other hand, there is no verification process for other price oracles and thus no way to ensure the price data reported by other oracles meet the non-arbitrage condition.
In addition, NEST protocol can achieve on-chain price updates for every block under the most efficient scenario. Since the smallest unit of time is the block time in the on-chain world, price updates on every block is the most efficient way that can be achieved.

https://preview.redd.it/55i0obqus4s51.png?width=1656&format=png&auto=webp&s=15874470b6088f6289053d3e9fa1adb4e1af1b90

The unique risk factors value proposition

Price delay and price deviation are two key risk factors presented in all oracle infrastructure. Network congestion or a lack of price feed can cause price delay causing price deviations. These two risk factors can influence the performance of other DeFi platforms relying on these oracles.
Unfortunately, there is no way to eliminate price delay and price deviations due to the fact that the off-chain world runs on continuous time, but the on-chain world runs discretely by block.
As a result, after an asset’s price undergoes the process of being transmitted through the oracle from off chain to on-chain, it also becomes different from the quoted price of the off-chain exchange.
In fact, the transfer of asset experience from off-chain to on-chain will produce three different prices with small deviations: exchange quotations, oracle theoretical feed prices, and on-chain quotations (true price generated by Oracles). Behind the difference between these three prices are two easily overlooked risk factors: 1: delay 2: volatility.

https://preview.redd.it/k9gqs9zts4s51.png?width=1298&format=png&auto=webp&s=f4105034ea046fafe35f7d00aeb61f4319e93a8f

Delay and volatility


https://preview.redd.it/00mdu0yss4s51.png?width=1180&format=png&auto=webp&s=20ec343973a05cffdbd1a4377ef54509f83565eb
For all price oracle protocols, market volatility matters. Since the on-chain and off-chain world runs in parallel with different time structures, price differences are naturally presented between the off-chain and the on-chain world due to time delay. However, when the market volatility is higher, price differences can experience some even larger gaps.

Data analysis

This section presents a data-driven analysis of the differences in ETH/USDT prices between price oracles (i.e., NEST Protocol and Chainlink Oracle1) and Huobi Global exchange, using historical data ranging from August 30, 2020 to September 16, 2020.
1: Chainlink launched ETH/USD aggregation while NEST Protocol provides ETH/USDT reference price. In this analysis, we assume the difference between USDT and USD is negligible.
We discovered that the ETH/USDT price from the oracles matches Huobi Global exchange’s off-chain price data closely with some extremely small deviations.

https://preview.redd.it/0ndsiyxrs4s51.png?width=1350&format=png&auto=webp&s=106f9324dced6661a9a92f86d2b7fdc05d0ca7b8
Then we further calculate the spread between Chainlink’s and NEST’s ETH/USDT prices and exchange price. Most of the time the NEST Protocol’s price spread (red dots) is smaller than Chainlink’s (blue dots). The absolute number of Chainlink’s average price spread ($0.494) is 31x as much as NEST’s ($-0.016).
This finding affirms that the NEST Protocol’s price data can be more properly referred to in the decentralised world based on its accuracy.

https://preview.redd.it/0kpmjeirs4s51.png?width=1154&format=png&auto=webp&s=77d8b44b3e64ea83a5415f4951366065091c0609
The results of the spread analysis indicate that the price spreads between September 2 and 6 were relatively large, which we believe was related to the higher gas fee and ETH/USDT price volatility on the Ethereum network during the time. For Sep 2 2020, the Ethereum average daily gas price is roughly around 480 Gwei.

https://preview.redd.it/37i9ia0rs4s51.png?width=1046&format=png&auto=webp&s=a2333c6f3600a34a994bc4944f56a0e65269ff31
We have further analyzed the standard deviation of 1440 minutes rolling price spread and the results have shown that the standard deviation of the Nest’s spread was only 0.21% to 1.30%, while for Chainlink it ranges from 0.97% to 2.01%, again we have verified that the NEST Protocol has a more reliable quotation design.

https://preview.redd.it/5qpqrhiqs4s51.png?width=1064&format=png&auto=webp&s=9543a04167056c9c18ff24f098fef881af819598
We extracted data between Sep 5 and Sep 14, 2020 for deeper analysis. Both NEST Protocol’s and Chainlink’s highest absolute number of average daily spread prices occurred on Sep 5, 2020. ETH/USDT quotation price from Huobi Global exchange fell by more than $76 on that same day. While Sep 14, 2020 presents a relatively low price volatility market.
The below analysis shows that Chainlink’s reference prices (red dots) provide much less price data than NEST Protocol, which means Chainlink has a lower frequency of quotation under a stable market, due to its design.
Chainlink is set to trigger the oracle updates when the off-chain price fluctuated for over 0.5%. Otherwise, there will be no price update for as long as 10800 seconds. While in NEST Protocol, anyone can become a miner providing quotations to earn NEST tokens. With a higher frequency of quotation, Nest’s reference price tracks more closely to the Huobi Global’s than Chainlink’s.

https://preview.redd.it/vypjwbups4s51.png?width=1048&format=png&auto=webp&s=0832677b19ee678c58abb20cefe9bffc68363c45
The analysis of price spreads also confirms the above view. The deviations of the two oracles’ price spreads from zero is different under different market conditions. On Sep 05, 2020, when the market was in a higher volatility, the deviation is larger than that under the lower price volatility market.
Under the same market condition, the deviations from zero for Chainlink’s price spreads (blue dots) are worse than NEST Protocol’s (red dots) for most of the time.

https://preview.redd.it/a6sd8m9ps4s51.png?width=1102&format=png&auto=webp&s=5937dd766e7dc6163620d5795e9b6fcd37497ba5
Our interim analysis shows that prices provided by NEST Protocol match more closely with those from the centralised exchange. In contrast, Chainlink as one of the price oracle infrastructures demonstrated subordinate performance in terms of price reliability.

What does this mean for the future of DeFi?

The current DeFi ecosystem can be described as CeFi running on blockchain, although the space continues to strive for decentralization, innovation, and permission-less. We believe that the current DeFi market structure can be considered as DeFi 1.0, where some of the most critical legos pieces in the DeFi blueprint such as lending, trading, derivatives, price oracles, etc have been built to support the early stage ecosystem in the past few years.
We have demonstrated that current DeFi price oracles can be more accurate and reliable to support further innovation in the space. Major players such as Chainlink offer a solution to solve the most important issue in the decentralised world - connecting off-chain data with on-chain data. However, its reliability, accuracy and the decentralised nature are called into question when compared with the NEST oracle supported by in-depth data analysis.
As DeFi grows, however, DeFi 1.0 no longer satisfies all the market demands, especially those coming from sophisticated market participants. As such, we need DeFi 2.0, or what we call, CoFi, Computable Finance.
To resolve the problem that current financial risks in DeFi lack computability, a redesign of the price oracle infrastructure is likely part of the solution. At the end of the day, a sustainable DeFi ecosystem will be the one where market participants can be compensated by bearing certain risks, and these risks can be computable in such a way that they allow market participants to properly quantify hedge these risks if necessary.
In the CoFi world, we envision the reshape of the most important DeFi infrastructure - the price oracle - entirely from the ground up to attract meaningful market attraction, deliver accurate and timely data information, enable computable risks, and meet the non-arbitrage condition.

References

[1] Uniswap v2 Core
https://uniswap.org/whitepaper.pdf
[2] Bancor Protocol
https://storage.googleapis.com/website-banco2018/04/01ba8253-bancor\_protocol\_whitepaper\_en.pdf
[3] The Math Behind PMM
https://dodoex.github.io/docs/docs/math
[4] NEST Protocol
https://nestprotocol.org/doc/ennestwhitepaper.pdf
[5] How Accurate the NEST Price Is
https://nestprotocol.org/doc/NEST\_Price\_Performance.pdf
[6] Trading Compensation of CoFiX
https://cofix.io/doc/Trading\_Compensation\_CoFiX.pdf
[7] CoFiX Product Documentation
https://docs.cofix.io/
Disclosure: Huobi DeFi Labs has provided financial support to CoFiX, a community driven DeFi protocol that’s built on the NEST oracle.
submitted by Nest_Fan to defi [link] [comments]

Dragonchain Great Reddit Scaling Bake-Off Public Proposal

Dragonchain Great Reddit Scaling Bake-Off Public Proposal

Dragonchain Public Proposal TL;DR:

Dragonchain has demonstrated twice Reddit’s entire total daily volume (votes, comments, and posts per Reddit 2019 Year in Review) in a 24-hour demo on an operational network. Every single transaction on Dragonchain is decentralized immediately through 5 levels of Dragon Net, and then secured with combined proof on Bitcoin, Ethereum, Ethereum Classic, and Binance Chain, via Interchain. At the time, in January 2020, the entire cost of the demo was approximately $25K on a single system (transaction fees locked at $0.0001/txn). With current fees (lowest fee $0.0000025/txn), this would cost as little as $625.
Watch Joe walk through the entire proposal and answer questions on YouTube.
This proposal is also available on the Dragonchain blog.

Hello Reddit and Ethereum community!

I’m Joe Roets, Founder & CEO of Dragonchain. When the team and I first heard about The Great Reddit Scaling Bake-Off we were intrigued. We believe we have the solutions Reddit seeks for its community points system and we have them at scale.
For your consideration, we have submitted our proposal below. The team at Dragonchain and I welcome and look forward to your technical questions, philosophical feedback, and fair criticism, to build a scaling solution for Reddit that will empower its users. Because our architecture is unlike other blockchain platforms out there today, we expect to receive many questions while people try to grasp our project. I will answer all questions here in this thread on Reddit, and I've answered some questions in the stream on YouTube.
We have seen good discussions so far in the competition. We hope that Reddit’s scaling solution will emerge from The Great Reddit Scaling Bake-Off and that Reddit will have great success with the implementation.

Executive summary

Dragonchain is a robust open source hybrid blockchain platform that has proven to withstand the passing of time since our inception in 2014. We have continued to evolve to harness the scalability of private nodes, yet take full advantage of the security of public decentralized networks, like Ethereum. We have a live, operational, and fully functional Interchain network integrating Bitcoin, Ethereum, Ethereum Classic, and ~700 independent Dragonchain nodes. Every transaction is secured to Ethereum, Bitcoin, and Ethereum Classic. Transactions are immediately usable on chain, and the first decentralization is seen within 20 seconds on Dragon Net. Security increases further to public networks ETH, BTC, and ETC within 10 minutes to 2 hours. Smart contracts can be written in any executable language, offering full freedom to existing developers. We invite any developer to watch the demo, play with our SDK’s, review open source code, and to help us move forward. Dragonchain specializes in scalable loyalty & rewards solutions and has built a decentralized social network on chain, with very affordable transaction costs. This experience can be combined with the insights Reddit and the Ethereum community have gained in the past couple of months to roll out the solution at a rapid pace.

Response and PoC

In The Great Reddit Scaling Bake-Off post, Reddit has asked for a series of demonstrations, requirements, and other considerations. In this section, we will attempt to answer all of these requests.

Live Demo

A live proof of concept showing hundreds of thousands of transactions
On Jan 7, 2020, Dragonchain hosted a 24-hour live demonstration during which a quarter of a billion (250 million+) transactions executed fully on an operational network. Every single transaction on Dragonchain is decentralized immediately through 5 levels of Dragon Net, and then secured with combined proof on Bitcoin, Ethereum, Ethereum Classic, and Binance Chain, via Interchain. This means that every single transaction is secured by, and traceable to these networks. An attack on this system would require a simultaneous attack on all of the Interchained networks.
24 hours in 4 minutes (YouTube):
24 hours in 4 minutes
The demonstration was of a single business system, and any user is able to scale this further, by running multiple systems simultaneously. Our goals for the event were to demonstrate a consistent capacity greater than that of Visa over an extended time period.
Tooling to reproduce our demo is available here:
https://github.com/dragonchain/spirit-bomb

Source Code

Source code (for on & off-chain components as well tooling used for the PoC). The source code does not have to be shared publicly, but if Reddit decides to use a particular solution it will need to be shared with Reddit at some point.

Scaling

How it works & scales

Architectural Scaling

Dragonchain’s architecture attacks the scalability issue from multiple angles. Dragonchain is a hybrid blockchain platform, wherein every transaction is protected on a business node to the requirements of that business or purpose. A business node may be held completely private or may be exposed or replicated to any level of exposure desired.
Every node has its own blockchain and is independently scalable. Dragonchain established Context Based Verification as its consensus model. Every transaction is immediately usable on a trust basis, and in time is provable to an increasing level of decentralized consensus. A transaction will have a level of decentralization to independently owned and deployed Dragonchain nodes (~700 nodes) within seconds, and full decentralization to BTC and ETH within minutes or hours. Level 5 nodes (Interchain nodes) function to secure all transactions to public or otherwise external chains such as Bitcoin and Ethereum. These nodes scale the system by aggregating multiple blocks into a single Interchain transaction on a cadence. This timing is configurable based upon average fees for each respective chain. For detailed information about Dragonchain’s architecture, and Context Based Verification, please refer to the Dragonchain Architecture Document.

Economic Scaling

An interesting feature of Dragonchain’s network consensus is its economics and scarcity model. Since Dragon Net nodes (L2-L4) are independent staking nodes, deployment to cloud platforms would allow any of these nodes to scale to take on a large percentage of the verification work. This is great for scalability, but not good for the economy, because there is no scarcity, and pricing would develop a downward spiral and result in fewer verification nodes. For this reason, Dragonchain uses TIME as scarcity.
TIME is calculated as the number of Dragons held, multiplied by the number of days held. TIME influences the user’s access to features within the Dragonchain ecosystem. It takes into account both the Dragon balance and length of time each Dragon is held. TIME is staked by users against every verification node and dictates how much of the transaction fees are awarded to each participating node for every block.
TIME also dictates the transaction fee itself for the business node. TIME is staked against a business node to set a deterministic transaction fee level (see transaction fee table below in Cost section). This is very interesting in a discussion about scaling because it guarantees independence for business implementation. No matter how much traffic appears on the entire network, a business is guaranteed to not see an increased transaction fee rate.

Scaled Deployment

Dragonchain uses Docker and Kubernetes to allow the use of best practices traditional system scaling. Dragonchain offers managed nodes with an easy to use web based console interface. The user may also deploy a Dragonchain node within their own datacenter or favorite cloud platform. Users have deployed Dragonchain nodes on-prem on Amazon AWS, Google Cloud, MS Azure, and other hosting platforms around the world. Any executable code, anything you can write, can be written into a smart contract. This flexibility is what allows us to say that developers with no blockchain experience can use any code language to access the benefits of blockchain. Customers have used NodeJS, Python, Java, and even BASH shell script to write smart contracts on Dragonchain.
With Docker containers, we achieve better separation of concerns, faster deployment, higher reliability, and lower response times.
We chose Kubernetes for its self-healing features, ability to run multiple services on one server, and its large and thriving development community. It is resilient, scalable, and automated. OpenFaaS allows us to package smart contracts as Docker images for easy deployment.
Contract deployment time is now bounded only by the size of the Docker image being deployed but remains fast even for reasonably large images. We also take advantage of Docker’s flexibility and its ability to support any language that can run on x86 architecture. Any image, public or private, can be run as a smart contract using Dragonchain.

Flexibility in Scaling

Dragonchain’s architecture considers interoperability and integration as key features. From inception, we had a goal to increase adoption via integration with real business use cases and traditional systems.
We envision the ability for Reddit, in the future, to be able to integrate alternate content storage platforms or other financial services along with the token.
  • LBRY - To allow users to deploy content natively to LBRY
  • MakerDAO to allow users to lend small amounts backed by their Reddit community points.
  • STORJ/SIA to allow decentralized on chain storage of portions of content. These integrations or any other are relatively easy to integrate on Dragonchain with an Interchain implementation.

Cost

Cost estimates (on-chain and off-chain) For the purpose of this proposal, we assume that all transactions are on chain (posts, replies, and votes).
On the Dragonchain network, transaction costs are deterministic/predictable. By staking TIME on the business node (as described above) Reddit can reduce transaction costs to as low as $0.0000025 per transaction.
Dragonchain Fees Table

Getting Started

How to run it
Building on Dragonchain is simple and requires no blockchain experience. Spin up a business node (L1) in our managed environment (AWS), run it in your own cloud environment, or on-prem in your own datacenter. Clear documentation will walk you through the steps of spinning up your first Dragonchain Level 1 Business node.
Getting started is easy...
  1. Download Dragonchain’s dctl
  2. Input three commands into a terminal
  3. Build an image
  4. Run it
More information can be found in our Get started documents.

Architecture
Dragonchain is an open source hybrid platform. Through Dragon Net, each chain combines the power of a public blockchain (like Ethereum) with the privacy of a private blockchain.
Dragonchain organizes its network into five separate levels. A Level 1, or business node, is a totally private blockchain only accessible through the use of public/private keypairs. All business logic, including smart contracts, can be executed on this node directly and added to the chain.
After creating a block, the Level 1 business node broadcasts a version stripped of sensitive private data to Dragon Net. Three Level 2 Validating nodes validate the transaction based on guidelines determined from the business. A Level 3 Diversity node checks that the level 2 nodes are from a diverse array of locations. A Level 4 Notary node, hosted by a KYC partner, then signs the validation record received from the Level 3 node. The transaction hash is ledgered to the Level 5 public chain to take advantage of the hash power of massive public networks.
Dragon Net can be thought of as a “blockchain of blockchains”, where every level is a complete private blockchain. Because an L1 can send to multiple nodes on a single level, proof of existence is distributed among many places in the network. Eventually, proof of existence reaches level 5 and is published on a public network.

API Documentation

APIs (on chain & off)

SDK Source

Nobody’s Perfect

Known issues or tradeoffs
  • Dragonchain is open source and even though the platform is easy enough for developers to code in any language they are comfortable with, we do not have so large a developer community as Ethereum. We would like to see the Ethereum developer community (and any other communities) become familiar with our SDK’s, our solutions, and our platform, to unlock the full potential of our Ethereum Interchain. Long ago we decided to prioritize both Bitcoin and Ethereum Interchains. We envision an ecosystem that encompasses different projects to give developers the ability to take full advantage of all the opportunities blockchain offers to create decentralized solutions not only for Reddit but for all of our current platforms and systems. We believe that together we will take the adoption of blockchain further. We currently have additional Interchain with Ethereum Classic. We look forward to Interchain with other blockchains in the future. We invite all blockchains projects who believe in decentralization and security to Interchain with Dragonchain.
  • While we only have 700 nodes compared to 8,000 Ethereum and 10,000 Bitcoin nodes. We harness those 18,000 nodes to scale to extremely high levels of security. See Dragonchain metrics.
  • Some may consider the centralization of Dragonchain’s business nodes as an issue at first glance, however, the model is by design to protect business data. We do not consider this a drawback as these nodes can make any, none, or all data public. Depending upon the implementation, every subreddit could have control of its own business node, for potential business and enterprise offerings, bringing new alternative revenue streams to Reddit.

Costs and resources

Summary of cost & resource information for both on-chain & off-chain components used in the PoC, as well as cost & resource estimates for further scaling. If your PoC is not on mainnet, make note of any mainnet caveats (such as congestion issues).
Every transaction on the PoC system had a transaction fee of $0.0001 (one-hundredth of a cent USD). At 256MM transactions, the demo cost $25,600. With current operational fees, the same demonstration would cost $640 USD.
For the demonstration, to achieve throughput to mimic a worldwide payments network, we modeled several clients in AWS and 4-5 business nodes to handle the traffic. The business nodes were tuned to handle higher throughput by adjusting memory and machine footprint on AWS. This flexibility is valuable to implementing a system such as envisioned by Reddit. Given that Reddit’s daily traffic (posts, replies, and votes) is less than half that of our demo, we would expect that the entire Reddit system could be handled on 2-5 business nodes using right-sized containers on AWS or similar environments.
Verification was accomplished on the operational Dragon Net network with over 700 independently owned verification nodes running around the world at no cost to the business other than paid transaction fees.

Requirements

Scaling

This PoC should scale to the numbers below with minimal costs (both on & off-chain). There should also be a clear path to supporting hundreds of millions of users.
Over a 5 day period, your scaling PoC should be able to handle:
*100,000 point claims (minting & distributing points) *25,000 subscriptions *75,000 one-off points burning *100,000 transfers
During Dragonchain’s 24 hour demo, the above required numbers were reached within the first few minutes.
Reddit’s total activity is 9000% more than Ethereum’s total transaction level. Even if you do not include votes, it is still 700% more than Ethereum’s current volume. Dragonchain has demonstrated that it can handle 250 million transactions a day, and it’s architecture allows for multiple systems to work at that level simultaneously. In our PoC, we demonstrate double the full capacity of Reddit, and every transaction was proven all the way to Bitcoin and Ethereum.
Reddit Scaling on Ethereum

Decentralization

Solutions should not depend on any single third-party provider. We prefer solutions that do not depend on specific entities such as Reddit or another provider, and solutions with no single point of control or failure in off-chain components but recognize there are numerous trade-offs to consider
Dragonchain’s architecture calls for a hybrid approach. Private business nodes hold the sensitive data while the validation and verification of transactions for the business are decentralized within seconds and secured to public blockchains within 10 minutes to 2 hours. Nodes could potentially be controlled by owners of individual subreddits for more organic decentralization.
  • Billing is currently centralized - there is a path to federation and decentralization of a scaled billing solution.
  • Operational multi-cloud
  • Operational on-premises capabilities
  • Operational deployment to any datacenter
  • Over 700 independent Community Verification Nodes with proof of ownership
  • Operational Interchain (Interoperable to Bitcoin, Ethereum, and Ethereum Classic, open to more)

Usability Scaling solutions should have a simple end user experience.

Users shouldn't have to maintain any extra state/proofs, regularly monitor activity, keep track of extra keys, or sign anything other than their normal transactions
Dragonchain and its customers have demonstrated extraordinary usability as a feature in many applications, where users do not need to know that the system is backed by a live blockchain. Lyceum is one of these examples, where the progress of academy courses is being tracked, and successful completion of courses is rewarded with certificates on chain. Our @Save_The_Tweet bot is popular on Twitter. When used with one of the following hashtags - #please, #blockchain, #ThankYou, or #eternalize the tweet is saved through Eternal to multiple blockchains. A proof report is available for future reference. Other examples in use are DEN, our decentralized social media platform, and our console, where users can track their node rewards, view their TIME, and operate a business node.
Examples:

Transactions complete in a reasonable amount of time (seconds or minutes, not hours or days)
All transactions are immediately usable on chain by the system. A transaction begins the path to decentralization at the conclusion of a 5-second block when it gets distributed across 5 separate community run nodes. Full decentralization occurs within 10 minutes to 2 hours depending on which interchain (Bitcoin, Ethereum, or Ethereum Classic) the transaction hits first. Within approximately 2 hours, the combined hash power of all interchained blockchains secures the transaction.

Free to use for end users (no gas fees, or fixed/minimal fees that Reddit can pay on their behalf)
With transaction pricing as low as $0.0000025 per transaction, it may be considered reasonable for Reddit to cover transaction fees for users.
All of Reddit's Transactions on Blockchain (month)
Community points can be earned by users and distributed directly to their Reddit account in batch (as per Reddit minting plan), and allow users to withdraw rewards to their Ethereum wallet whenever they wish. Withdrawal fees can be paid by either user or Reddit. This model has been operating inside the Dragonchain system since 2018, and many security and financial compliance features can be optionally added. We feel that this capability greatly enhances user experience because it is seamless to a regular user without cryptocurrency experience, yet flexible to a tech savvy user. With regard to currency or token transactions, these would occur on the Reddit network, verified to BTC and ETH. These transactions would incur the $0.0000025 transaction fee. To estimate this fee we use the monthly active Reddit users statista with a 60% adoption rate and an estimated 10 transactions per month average resulting in an approximate $720 cost across the system. Reddit could feasibly incur all associated internal network charges (mining/minting, transfer, burn) as these are very low and controllable fees.
Reddit Internal Token Transaction Fees

Reddit Ethereum Token Transaction Fees
When we consider further the Ethereum fees that might be incurred, we have a few choices for a solution.
  1. Offload all Ethereum transaction fees (user withdrawals) to interested users as they wish to withdraw tokens for external use or sale.
  2. Cover Ethereum transaction fees by aggregating them on a timed schedule. Users would request withdrawal (from Reddit or individual subreddits), and they would be transacted on the Ethereum network every hour (or some other schedule).
  3. In a combination of the above, customers could cover aggregated fees.
  4. Integrate with alternate Ethereum roll up solutions or other proposals to aggregate minting and distribution transactions onto Ethereum.

Bonus Points

Users should be able to view their balances & transactions via a blockchain explorer-style interface
From interfaces for users who have no knowledge of blockchain technology to users who are well versed in blockchain terms such as those present in a typical block explorer, a system powered by Dragonchain has flexibility on how to provide balances and transaction data to users. Transactions can be made viewable in an Eternal Proof Report, which displays raw data along with TIME staking information and traceability all the way to Bitcoin, Ethereum, and every other Interchained network. The report shows fields such as transaction ID, timestamp, block ID, multiple verifications, and Interchain proof. See example here.
Node payouts within the Dragonchain console are listed in chronological order and can be further seen in either Dragons or USD. See example here.
In our social media platform, Dragon Den, users can see, in real-time, their NRG and MTR balances. See example here.
A new influencer app powered by Dragonchain, Raiinmaker, breaks down data into a user friendly interface that shows coin portfolio, redeemed rewards, and social scores per campaign. See example here.

Exiting is fast & simple
Withdrawing funds on Dragonchain’s console requires three clicks, however, withdrawal scenarios with more enhanced security features per Reddit’s discretion are obtainable.

Interoperability Compatibility with third party apps (wallets/contracts/etc) is necessary.
Proven interoperability at scale that surpasses the required specifications. Our entire platform consists of interoperable blockchains connected to each other and traditional systems. APIs are well documented. Third party permissions are possible with a simple smart contract without the end user being aware. No need to learn any specialized proprietary language. Any code base (not subsets) is usable within a Docker container. Interoperable with any blockchain or traditional APIs. We’ve witnessed relatively complex systems built by engineers with no blockchain or cryptocurrency experience. We’ve also demonstrated the creation of smart contracts within minutes built with BASH shell and Node.js. Please see our source code and API documentation.

Scaling solutions should be extensible and allow third parties to build on top of it Open source and extensible
APIs should be well documented and stable

Documentation should be clear and complete
For full documentation, explore our docs, SDK’s, Github repo’s, architecture documents, original Disney documentation, and other links or resources provided in this proposal.

Third-party permissionless integrations should be possible & straightforward Smart contracts are Docker based, can be written in any language, use full language (not subsets), and can therefore be integrated with any system including traditional system APIs. Simple is better. Learning an uncommon or proprietary language should not be necessary.
Advanced knowledge of mathematics, cryptography, or L2 scaling should not be required. Compatibility with common utilities & toolchains is expected.
Dragonchain business nodes and smart contracts leverage Docker to allow the use of literally any language or executable code. No proprietary language is necessary. We’ve witnessed relatively complex systems built by engineers with no blockchain or cryptocurrency experience. We’ve also demonstrated the creation of smart contracts within minutes built with BASH shell and Node.js.

Bonus

Bonus Points: Show us how it works. Do you have an idea for a cool new use case for Community Points? Build it!

TIME

Community points could be awarded to Reddit users based upon TIME too, whereas the longer someone is part of a subreddit, the more community points someone naturally gained, even if not actively commenting or sharing new posts. A daily login could be required for these community points to be credited. This grants awards to readers too and incentivizes readers to create an account on Reddit if they browse the website often. This concept could also be leveraged to provide some level of reputation based upon duration and consistency of contribution to a community subreddit.

Dragon Den

Dragonchain has already built a social media platform that harnesses community involvement. Dragon Den is a decentralized community built on the Dragonchain blockchain platform. Dragon Den is Dragonchain’s answer to fake news, trolling, and censorship. It incentivizes the creation and evaluation of quality content within communities. It could be described as being a shareholder of a subreddit or Reddit in its entirety. The more your subreddit is thriving, the more rewarding it will be. Den is currently in a public beta and in active development, though the real token economy is not live yet. There are different tokens for various purposes. Two tokens are Lair Ownership Rights (LOR) and Lair Ownership Tokens (LOT). LOT is a non-fungible token for ownership of a specific Lair. LOT will only be created and converted from LOR.
Energy (NRG) and Matter (MTR) work jointly. Your MTR determines how much NRG you receive in a 24-hour period. Providing quality content, or evaluating content will earn MTR.

Security. Users have full ownership & control of their points.
All community points awarded based upon any type of activity or gift, are secured and provable to all Interchain networks (currently BTC, ETH, ETC). Users are free to spend and withdraw their points as they please, depending on the features Reddit wants to bring into production.

Balances and transactions cannot be forged, manipulated, or blocked by Reddit or anyone else
Users can withdraw their balance to their ERC20 wallet, directly through Reddit. Reddit can cover the fees on their behalf, or the user covers this with a portion of their balance.

Users should own their points and be able to get on-chain ERC20 tokens without permission from anyone else
Through our console users can withdraw their ERC20 rewards. This can be achieved on Reddit too. Here is a walkthrough of our console, though this does not show the quick withdrawal functionality, a user can withdraw at any time. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aNlTMxnfVHw

Points should be recoverable to on-chain ERC20 tokens even if all third-parties involved go offline
If necessary, signed transactions from the Reddit system (e.g. Reddit + Subreddit) can be sent to the Ethereum smart contract for minting.

A public, third-party review attesting to the soundness of the design should be available
To our knowledge, at least two large corporations, including a top 3 accounting firm, have conducted positive reviews. These reviews have never been made public, as Dragonchain did not pay or contract for these studies to be released.

Bonus points
Public, third-party implementation review available or in progress
See above

Compatibility with HSMs & hardware wallets
For the purpose of this proposal, all tokenization would be on the Ethereum network using standard token contracts and as such, would be able to leverage all hardware wallet and Ethereum ecosystem services.

Other Considerations

Minting/distributing tokens is not performed by Reddit directly
This operation can be automated by smart contract on Ethereum. Subreddits can if desired have a role to play.

One off point burning, as well as recurring, non-interactive point burning (for subreddit memberships) should be possible and scalable
This is possible and scalable with interaction between Dragonchain Reddit system and Ethereum token contract(s).

Fully open-source solutions are strongly preferred
Dragonchain is fully open source (see section on Disney release after conclusion).

Conclusion

Whether it is today, or in the future, we would like to work together to bring secure flexibility to the highest standards. It is our hope to be considered by Ethereum, Reddit, and other integrative solutions so we may further discuss the possibilities of implementation. In our public demonstration, 256 million transactions were handled in our operational network on chain in 24 hours, for the low cost of $25K, which if run today would cost $625. Dragonchain’s interoperable foundation provides the atmosphere necessary to implement a frictionless community points system. Thank you for your consideration of our proposal. We look forward to working with the community to make something great!

Disney Releases Blockchain Platform as Open Source

The team at Disney created the Disney Private Blockchain Platform. The system was a hybrid interoperable blockchain platform for ledgering and smart contract development geared toward solving problems with blockchain adoption and usability. All objective evaluation would consider the team’s output a success. We released a list of use cases that we explored in some capacity at Disney, and our input on blockchain standardization as part of our participation in the W3C Blockchain Community Group.
https://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/public-blockchain/2016May/0052.html

Open Source

In 2016, Roets proposed to release the platform as open source to spread the technology outside of Disney, as others within the W3C group were interested in the solutions that had been created inside of Disney.
Following a long process, step by step, the team met requirements for release. Among the requirements, the team had to:
  • Obtain VP support and approval for the release
  • Verify ownership of the software to be released
  • Verify that no proprietary content would be released
  • Convince the organization that there was a value to the open source community
  • Convince the organization that there was a value to Disney
  • Offer the plan for ongoing maintenance of the project outside of Disney
  • Itemize competing projects
  • Verify no conflict of interest
  • Preferred license
  • Change the project name to not use the name Disney, any Disney character, or any other associated IP - proposed Dragonchain - approved
  • Obtain legal approval
  • Approval from corporate, parks, and other business units
  • Approval from multiple Disney patent groups Copyright holder defined by Disney (Disney Connected and Advanced Technologies)
  • Trademark searches conducted for the selected name Dragonchain
  • Obtain IT security approval
  • Manual review of OSS components conducted
  • OWASP Dependency and Vulnerability Check Conducted
  • Obtain technical (software) approval
  • Offer management, process, and financial plans for the maintenance of the project.
  • Meet list of items to be addressed before release
  • Remove all Disney project references and scripts
  • Create a public distribution list for email communications
  • Remove Roets’ direct and internal contact information
  • Create public Slack channel and move from Disney slack channels
  • Create proper labels for issue tracking
  • Rename internal private Github repository
  • Add informative description to Github page
  • Expand README.md with more specific information
  • Add information beyond current “Blockchains are Magic”
  • Add getting started sections and info on cloning/forking the project
  • Add installation details
  • Add uninstall process
  • Add unit, functional, and integration test information
  • Detail how to contribute and get involved
  • Describe the git workflow that the project will use
  • Move to public, non-Disney git repository (Github or Bitbucket)
  • Obtain Disney Open Source Committee approval for release
On top of meeting the above criteria, as part of the process, the maintainer of the project had to receive the codebase on their own personal email and create accounts for maintenance (e.g. Github) with non-Disney accounts. Given the fact that the project spanned multiple business units, Roets was individually responsible for its ongoing maintenance. Because of this, he proposed in the open source application to create a non-profit organization to hold the IP and maintain the project. This was approved by Disney.
The Disney Open Source Committee approved the application known as OSSRELEASE-10, and the code was released on October 2, 2016. Disney decided to not issue a press release.
Original OSSRELASE-10 document

Dragonchain Foundation

The Dragonchain Foundation was created on January 17, 2017. https://den.social/l/Dragonchain/24130078352e485d96d2125082151cf0/dragonchain-and-disney/
submitted by j0j0r0 to ethereum [link] [comments]

[Hiring] Junior Quantitative Strategist in London

Role: Junior Quantitative Strategist
Salary: £75,000-85,000
Open posting date: 25 September 2020
Closing date for applications: 23 October 2020
Jetstone Asset Management
Jetstone Asset Management is a quantitative trading and investment firm with a focus on multi-asset class strategies. Founded in 2014, Jetstone manages approximately $1.5bn across a diverse set of fully automated portfolios deployed across exchanges globally.
Mission
Our mission is simple: Figure out how the world works - Uncover the causal relationships that drive global markets. We believe the economy is an emergent phenomenon that requires looking beyond rigid and dated assumptions to advance. To this end, we are committed to pushing the boundaries of applied statistics, machine learning and scientific computing, based on a holistic approach that combines deep domain expertise with advanced mathematical methods.
Role Requirements
We place a strong emphasis on practical software development and data science skills. All candidates are expected to have expert knowledge of at least one scripting language (strong preference for Python) and basic experience with at least one compiled language (e.g. C/C++, Java, Scala, Go). Candidates must have proven experience contributing to medium- to large scale software or data science projects (open or closed source). They must have gone beyond pure academic knowledge in their respective domain and demonstrated a passion for building solutions independently from the ground up. All candidates should be comfortable with shell scripting, version control systems, common collaboration tools and development workflows. We are particularly keen to speak to candidates with an entrepreneurial drive, who have made contributions to open-source projects or have worked on other kinds of self-directed ventures in the past.
Read more / apply: https://ai-jobs.net/job/3204-junior-quantitative-strategist/
submitted by ai_jobs to PythonJobs [link] [comments]

How to Proceed?

During my senior year in high school (California), I descended into a prolonged depression until my graduation. I thought that my future would simply encompass the parking lot of the library, where many homeless people in the Bay Area often peacefully resided. I refused to submit my college applications, because I thought my destiny was already preordained to become a hapless beggar, dancing in front of people for spare change. Furthermore, since I wasn’t the brightest student in my class, I wouldn’t have a chance at a university. To keep in mind, I wasn’t an academically poor student, I was a slightly above average student, with a 3.6 GPA and a 1460 SAT, but was my ostracization due to my introversion and stuttering, often led me to precarious problems with my self-esteem. I never involved myself with anyone and everyone knew that the kid sitting alone on the blue bench adjacent to the tree, eating his tuna sandwich, was me. I never told anyone about my feelings or emotions during this period. While the only two people that I could describe as “friends” were accepted into UC Berkeley, I was too busy committing verbal self-flagellation in a stall in the boy’s bathroom.
My parents, due to personal reasons, had to move to their country of origin, to be near and take care of my extended family. My father, whose vision was for me become a physician, wanted me to come with him, to “be there with him” as he stated, and to enroll in the country’s medical schools (They follow the British Commonwealth system, and therefore medical school follows secondary education and admission is based upon test scores than individual grades). I have always worshipped the idol that was my father, and if there was one noticeable trait anybody could tell you about me, was that I would unquestionably obeyed him. Even if I disagreed with him internally, I could never be an iconoclast.
I agreed with my father’s proposition to move to the country, but being in such a pool of depression, I was not giving a truly conscious response. A few weeks after my graduation, we moved. I applied to the medical schools within that respective country, but a technicality in the processing of my tests scores caused my admission to be delayed by a year. I never had a passion, and I resolved to determine what subjects I truly was passionate about. During my gap year, even as I read books on philosophy, economics, and history, I developed a love for mathematics, physics, and history. I was even able to master elementary Latin and read Commentarii de Bello Gallico with some assistance. As I delved deeper and deeper into these subjects, I began to believe that medicine was idiosyncratic with my interests and developed hesitations about pursuing it as a career.
As of the moment, the gap year had ended and I have been admitted to one of the most prestigious medical colleges in the country. The indecisive thoughts and hesitations that I had about pursuing medicine as a career during my gap year has, unfortunately, been realized. The coursework is simply too great, and I am competing with people who have fallen in love their respective field. The exams for each individual module requires perpetual memorization, and I have become an automated drone reciting on the intricacies of skin lesions. My father has been noticing that I have become increasingly withdrawn, and I believe that I may be waking down the downward spiral into depression again. I don’t want to be drowning in a pool of melancholy and despondency, because this time, I am worried that I may not know how to swim.
My wish, at the moment, is to pursue a degree in mathematics and physics in California, but I don’t know if this wish is likely, beneficial, or even achievable. I have been looking online for jobs that are available to Physics majors, and have an understanding that Wall Street seems to have an affinity towards them. However, according to websites such as WSO, it seems that these investment banking and commodities trading firms hire from only prestigious schools. If these corporations selectively choose people from Ivy League schools, how would a person like me, who probably doesn’t even have a chance of being admitted into Merced, become an analyst? If I was to go to community college, how would I support myself and my living expenditures, since I would be living by myself? More importantly, how do I tell my father?
To summarize, WWYD?
Edit: I elaborated on the post to better express the situation and the feels that I am and have been experiencing.
submitted by temp_account2020 to helpme [link] [comments]

Flatten the Curve. #52. Lance B Eliot. AI World Government President (Organization) Behind Lance? Oracle Solutions. S&P. Is Techbrium a Real Company? C3.ai Founder Claims We're at War With China Already. The WEF Great Reset & Prince Charles. Boom or Doom. It's Game On.

You have to read, Flatten the Curve, Part 51 first. Who is Lance B Eliot? Link Here
After posting the article about Lance B Eliot yesterday, another video popped up on YouTube. u/D4W50N88 found it and provided the link, and I'm glad he did (Thank you D4). Why didn't it show up for me? No idea. But it did, and now the enigma has become worse.
When I first stumbled onto this, I made a mistake. I went back through my notes and found that I had wrongly attributed the Lance persona as the judge sitting to the left of what was Lance at the table. How did I screw up that bad? I'm human. (No seriously, I'm human. I'm not AI. I'm not NSA. CIA. I don't have any affiliations to any Alphabet agencies. I am what I am. And what is that? A guy who grew up with an extremely skeptical father who always called BS on the news and political events, and tried to make me understand that it was self interest, not altruism, that guided the world around us. That will be expanded on at some point down the road.) I make mistakes. It's not the first time and it won't be the last. But sometimes mistakes happen for a reason.
This is one of those times.
So I watched the second YouTube video of Lance that was provided here;
I'm not sure if he's exactly an AI, seems to be a real person going off this video -
Really quick summary, he doesn't say diddly squat. Anyone could have regurgitated lvl 5 autonomous cars and insurance rates. My statement doesn't prove anything though. I realize that. But let me ask you something, He's been on CNN, he's written a ton of books, he's an angel investor, a venture capitalist, CEO of Techbrium, and not one other picture or (so far) any other videos of him exist? We're living in an age of near omnipresent and approaching omnipotent surveillance, they are screwing with DNA, the government has acknowledged UFO's, phenomenon like the Hum and Sky Quakes are being reported worldwide, we live in a pandemic for which we will need never ending vaccinations, so is it really out of the realm of reason that Lance could be an actor? I've looked for research papers from him and I've found maybe three to four. None of them are overly technical and mainly deal with AI and the law and ethics. That's strange. But before we dive further, I will concede the possibility that there is a Lance B Eliot, but I'm adamant that the articles and books are written by AI. No doubt in my mind, and by the time this post is done, you'll wonder what's really going on as well.
Let's start with his name. Something about it grabbed my attention, as it did for others. I can't speak for them, but I remember just looking at it suddenly thinking, is that an anagram?
u/agelesseverytime • Lance B Eliot is an anagram for antebellico - prewar.
u/WhiteRabbitCaveCA also sent me the same anagram.
Hidden in plain sight. But it's still a chess game. Your moves have to be deceptive and you need to look ahead a minimum of three moves. And all moves have multiple moves. Does this mean that the anagram doesn't apply? No. It does. And it points to the ability of having meaning hidden in meaning, all in the open.
Now I will caution you, this post will be somewhat open-ended. I haven't been able to find anything definitive that could point to a possible origin of what I believe to be Lance B Eliot, yet those breadcrumbs do lead to loaves of bread, so to speak.
So when I was sent the other YouTube link with Lance as a speaker, I looked around the web again. I had already found what I thought was a very strong link, but now the video threw a monkey wrench into my plans.
This is what else I found when I Googled articles by Lance B Eliot. Eliot Weinman, executive editor of AI Trends, where AI Eliot seems to get published a lot. Relax, it's not just the name coincidence. It's also this:
Curiosity as a Core Cognitive Capability for Self-Driving Cars. By Eliot Weinman. aitrends.com — By Dr. Lance B. Eliot, the AI Trends Insider. • I live in a gated community that has a main gate for residents and guests, and provides an impressive driving entrance into the neighborhood that displays ornate iron gates and a spectacular water-sprouting fountain. There is a secondary gate at the back of the community.
And then.
President Trump Will Sign an Executive Order Promoting AI. By Eliot Weinman • aitrends.com — President Trump is expected to sign an executive order on Monday meant to spur the development and regulation of artificial intelligence, technology that many experts believe will define the future of everything from consumer products to health care to warfare.
Source Here
There is another example there, but this will suffice. So why is Lance B Eliot being headlined by Eliot Weinman? Doesn't make sense, does it? And what is muckrack.com?
Say hello to your one-stop, relationship-building platform and goodbye to outdated media databases: Muck Rack’s search engine lets you discover and pitch relevant journalists in a much more targeted way than legacy media databases.
Ok. Now usually top ranking scientists don't belong to an organization that is meant to find journalists paying work. Why would they? And why would a guy who has started multiple companies, is a CEO of Techbrium - and speaking of which, check out the website, powered by godaddy? Seriously? It doesn’t list any employees, no detailed company history, and while it does have job openings, it seems off. So I Googled mapped Techbrium, and guess what, no results found. Ok. Gotcha. Must be the New Normal GPS malfunctioning, right? SMH.
Back to Eliot Weinman. Let me show you what he belongs to: Founder and Conference Chair, AI World & AI World Government (brought to you by the Cambridge Institute). Uhm. Keep Calm and Carry On? Don't Worry be Happy? And, Eliot Weinman is the GM and Founder at Cambridge Innovation Institute. Also, Eliot Weinman has had 1 past job as the President, Events and Publishing at Yankee Group. And. Research firm Yankee Group has acquired digital media and technology research and events firm Trendsmedia. The acquisition will “accelerate Yankee’s growth and expand its reach in global connectivity issues, helping network builders, operators and users navigate revolutionary change”, whatever that means. And when I clicked on trendsmedia, it led me to a clickfunnel company. And when I clicked on Yankees group, it was owned by 451 Research, which is owned by S&P Global Inc. (prior to April 2016 McGraw Hill Financial, Inc., and prior to 2013 McGraw-Hill Companies) is an American publicly traded corporation headquartered in Manhattan, New York City. Its primary areas of business are financial information and analytics. It is the parent company of S&P Global Ratings, S&P Global Market Intelligence, and S&P Global Platts, CRISIL, and is the majority owner of the S&P Dow Jones Indices joint venture. "S&P" is a shortening of "Standard and Poor's". Cool, right. Now what? Glad you asked. S&P is into four different segments.
S&P Global RatingsEdit • S&P Global Ratings provides independent investment research including ratings on various investment instruments.
S&P Global Market IntelligenceEdit • S&P Global Market Intelligence is a provider of multi-asset class and real-time data, research, news and analytics to institutional investors, investment and commercial banks, investment advisors and wealth managers, corporations, and universities. Subsidiaries include Leveraged Commentary & Data.
S&P Dow Jones IndicesEdit • Launched on July 2, 2012, S&P Dow Jones Indices is the world's largest global resource for index-based concepts, data, and research. It produces the S&P 500 and the Dow Jones Industrial Average.[20][21] S&P Dow Jones Indices calculates over 830,000 indices, publishes benchmarks that provide the basis for 575 ETFs globally with $387 billion in assets invested, and serves as the DNA for $1.5 trillion of the world's indexed assets.
S&P Global PlattsEdit • Headquartered in London, S&P Global Platts is a provider of information and a source of benchmark price assessments for the commodities, energy, petrochemicals, metals, and agriculture markets. It has offices in more than 15 cities, including major energy centres such as London, Dubai, Singapore, and Houston, and international business centres such as São Paulo, Shanghai, and New York City.
Ok. So what? So this. The McGraws and the George W. Bush family have close ties dating back several generations. Harold McGraw Jr. (deceased) was a member of the national grant advisory and founding board of the Barbara Bush Foundation for Family Literacy. Source Here
And who is the President and chief executive officer of S&P? Douglas L. Peterson. And what else does he do? Peterson is co-chair of the Bipartisan Policy Centers’ Executive Council on Infrastructure, and advocates for public-private sector partnerships as a means of improving infrastructure in the US.[23] For the World Economic Forum, Peterson is Co-Chair of the Stewardship Board of the Platform for Shaping the Future of Cities, Infrastructure and Urban Services; a Member of the International Business Council; and Governor of the Financial Services Industry Community. Peterson is also a boardmember of National Bureau of Economic Research, and the US-China Business Council. Peterson is a member of the Council on Foreign Relations and the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation's Systemic Resolution Advisory Committee.
Basically a Conspiracy Theorist's Doomscrolling dream job, am I right?
WEF • Who are behind the Great Reset (later post coming soon), and to quote Prince Charles speaking (virtually, of course SMH) at the World Economic Forum, "We have a golden opportunity to seize something good from this crisis - its unprecedented shockwaves may well make people more receptive to big visions of change," said Prince Charles at the meeting, adding later, "It is an opportunity we have never had before and may never have again." Source Here
Great. Perfect. Crisis. Reaction. Solution.
CFR • The Council on Foreign Relations (CFR), founded in 1921, is a United States nonprofit think tank specializing in U.S. foreign policy and international affairs. It is headquartered in New York City, with an additional office in Washington, D.C. Its membership, which numbers 4,900, has included senior politicians, more than a dozen secretaries of state, CIA directors, bankers, lawyers, professors, and senior media figures. Currently it has, • David M. Rubenstein (Chairman) – Cofounder and Co-Chief Executive Officer, The Carlyle Group. • Jami Miscik (Vice Chairman) She currently serves on the boards of EMC Corporation, In-Q-Tel and the American Ditchley Foundation, and is a member of the President's Intelligence Advisory Board. Before entering the private sector, she had a twenty-year career as an intelligence officer, including a stint as the Central Intelligence Agency's Deputy Director for Intelligence (2002–2005), and as the Director for Intelligence Programs at the National Security Council (1995–1996). • Thad W. Allen − Senior Executive Advisor, Booz Allen Hamilton Inc. • Laurence D. Fink – Chairman and Chief Executive Officer BlackRock. There are more, but you get it. And let's just top it off with, CFR has published the bi-monthly journal Foreign Affairs since 1922, and runs the David Rockefeller Studies Program, which influences foreign policy by making recommendations to the presidential administration and diplomatic community, testifying before Congress, interacting with the media, and publishing on foreign policy issues.
And you may have noticed the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, which insures banks from going bankrupt. Yikes. Hopefully we don't have a cybersecurity attack on our banking systems. Maybe we should use Coalfire?
OK, are you confused, me too. Let's recap.

BGG RECAP!

Lance B Eliot shares article ownership with Eliot Weinman on muckrack.com, which was published on AI Trends. Eliot Weinman is the executive director AI World and AI World Government. Trends Media was also bought by the Yankees Group, where Eliot Weinman is the President. And when I clicked on the Yankess group, it was owned by 451 Research, which was owned by S&P, which was started by friends of George Bush, who belonged to the Carlyle Group, which has a co-executive on the CFR, and Douglas Peterson is a member of the CFR and the WEF, while aslo running S&P.
Simple, right. Now, remember two things, Eliot Weinman seems to be associated with Lance B Eliot, and Lance is constantly produces articles about AI and business, while S&P has is all about business. Let's go.

Lance the Prequel.

So when I first found Lance, I started to ponder different anagrams. Why? Well, his last name. One guy who works for me is named Elliot, and Eliot stood out for the different spelling. After repeating a mantra of Eliot for a while, I stopped.
Eliot. ElIOT. elIoT. IoT. Internet of Things. It had to be me looking for a pattern. HAD TO BE. Then I looked at the name again. The end was possible, so I looked at his first name. I repeated the same mantra, letting my unconscious do the work. And sure enough, it hit me again. Lance. LANce. LAN. Local Area Network. No. Effing. Way. Come on. LAN + IoT = Local Area Network of Internet of Things. Ok. It adds up. Makes sense. I don't know how, but it does. Yet that still left me with the rest of his name.
CEBEL. Whelp, the mantra didn't help, it was time to dig. And dig I did. And found nothing. Well a couple of things, and one I thought that I was stretching logic too far, and the other, maybe not. Because it led me to OMG’s Artificial Intelligence Platform Task Force. A co-chair was Claude Baudoin, who has a company called cébé IT & Knowledge Management. And I almost went with it, and then something said NO. It was a gut feeling that I was wrong. There was no L in the company name. So I started digging all over again. And it wasn't easy. It took forever. It didn’t make sense. At all. I couldn't find anything that was an exact match. And then I saw this.
Thomas Siebel's software company C3IoT raised about $100 million from private equity investors in January 2018, at a $1.5 billion valuation. Today, C3.ai is focused on enterprise AI, but it started as a clean energy firm. It was briefly named C3IoT in 2016 to chase the IoT market. Siebel was a salesman at Oracle. He left in 1990, built software firm Siebel Systems and sold it to Oracle for $5.8 billion in cash and stock in 2006. Forbes
And he was attacked by an Elephant.
(DID YOU KNOW. Siebel was attacked by an elephant on a 2009 safari trip in Serengeti; he barely escaped death and has undergone 19 reconstructive surgeries. Maybe the animal kingdom was defending the planet?)
It was briefly named C3IoT. But the first program was sold to Oracle and • Oracle Siebel CRM is a sales force automation (SFA) and customer relationship management solution designed to assist enterprises to manage their customer experiences. It includes a range of sales, marketing and customer service applications tailored to various industries • focuses on businesses. Much like a lot of Lances articles. And Thomas Siebel's software • C3.ai is a leading enterprise AI software provider for accelerating digital transformation. The proven C3 AI Suite provides comprehensive services to build enterprise-scale AI applications more efficiently and cost-effectively than alternative approaches • advances AI to accelerate digital transformation, just like AI World Government, which is owned by Eliot Weinman. Is Cebel a play on Siebel? It sure seems like it to me.
And Thomas also has this to say.
High: What inning of the game do you believe we are in from an AI perspective, and how is that likely to develop going forward? Siebel: Julius Caesar considered Gaul as being divided into three parts, and I believe AI is divided into three parts.
1• Artificial general intelligence, which includes projects such as Google DeepMind. Here, the attempt is to build computers that have equal or greater intelligence as human beings. This gets to the malicious killer robots and the refrigerator that takes over your household theory, but I do not believe we need to worry about that in our lifetimes;
2• Social media systems. Here, social media vendors are using AI extremely effectively to manipulate people at the level of the limbic brain. I believe this is malevolent, and what we are seeing in social media is concerning. People are acting as servers to the computer instead of the opposite;
3• The application of AI to commercial, industrial, and government systems, which is where we play at C3.ai. This is building prediction to identify fraud, efficiency to the supply chain, and predictive maintenance for devices in the digital oilfields, the smart grid, the manufacturing industry, agricultural equipment, and precision health. This is about using AI to lower the cost of production and to deliver products and services with greater safety, with greater cybersecurity, and with lower environmental impact.
Hmmm. It's starting to sound like my posts, isn't it? Yet he's not worried about killer robots, yet social media manipulation, that's a problem. But I can bet you all the tea that's left in China, those words shouldn't be taken at Facebook value.
High: You have referred to there being a war with China based on artificial intelligence, and you have referenced how Vladimir Putin said the country that wins in AI will ultimately win in the world. As a citizen of the U.S., what do you think about this? How optimistic are you about the state’s ability to lead and the extent to which it is appropriate language? Siebel: This is a crucial topic. As you mentioned, in 2017, Vladimir Putin said, “Whoever wins the war in AI will be the ruler of the world.” I believe that is true, but I do not believe Russia will win. It is either going to be China or the U.S. I believe we are currently in a state of non-kinetic warfare with China. It is well-documented how great Russia and China are at infiltrating our power grid infrastructure, infiltrating our financial system infrastructure, and implanting viruses, bots, and malware so they can remotely turn off the grid. There are well-documented incidents where the Chinese have penetrated, say, the United States Office of Personnel Management and stolen the personnel records of up to 21 million people. This includes anyone who has ever applied for or been granted a security clearance. If this is not war, what is it? If you read the 13th five-year plan, it is extremely clear what they are doing. They are investing tens of billions of dollars a year in AI to win this battle and to dominate the use of AI for the purposes of defense and conducting warfare. In many ways, this is a test of two fundamentally opposed political philosophies. In the case of China, there is a totalitarian state with a top-down command and control economy where the NRDC writes the 13th five-year plan, invests billions of dollars, and mandates that this happens. They are extremely bright, competent, and educated, and they are hard at work. In the United States, we have a much messier process with a free-market economy and a capitalist system. Innovation does not take place from a top-down command and control government-mandated system, but in garages in Palo Alto and storefronts in theNew York. I do not know which system is going to win, but this is going to be the ultimate test of these political philosophies. This is not a war we want to lose, the stakes could not be higher, and it is game on.
And then.
High: What role do you see the government playing in all this versus private industries, and how do you see the balance between the two? Siebel: The people who work in the Pentagon are exceptionally bright and well educated. These scholar statesman warriors are not asleep at the switch, and they are adopting AI in many ways to prove the efficiency of the Department of Defense. As it relates to AI, the U.S. is going to advance through a free market economy, entrepreneurship, and through the creativity of individuals who are unbridled by the constraints of the stage. This system has always worked out for us in the past, and hopefully, it will continue to. If it does not, we are going to have a problem. Source Here
Game on. If it doesn't work, there's a problem, because we're in a war with China, and the Pentagon states that the war will be fought in abrupt climate change which will cause drought and famine in China. And I've said it before, but the social discord and the riots, will be blamed on Russia and/or China. And maybe they are to blame. Who knows, because we have to trust our New Normal World Order narrative as it's filtered with fact checks and fake news, while the surveillance system makes sure we are safe from physical threats through AI data mining, and incorporating AI through the Great Reset, which apparently China has to get on board with. Uhm, and people are having a hard time believing that our world is about to get turned upside down? Really? Has the desensitization been that effective that everyone is numb? Short answer, pretty much.

BGG Final Words

NEW YORK (PRWEB) JANUARY 11, 2018 • Though various forms of artificial intelligence and machine learning have existed for nearly 60 years, it is only recently that this field of computing has developed to a level of accessibility that truly allows businesses to leverage this innovative technology. There are no blanket solutions in technological transformations. Artificial intelligence is no exception. Mediaplanet’s Cognitive Technology campaign, created in partnership with Melinda Gates, the World Economic Forum and Microsoft, will serve as an educational guidebook for business leaders to understand how to obtain the maximum benefits from cognitive technologies within their market —using artificial intelligence to improve employee workflow and efficiency, reshape customer experiences and take risk and fraud protection to the next level. This program was made possible with the support of Melinda Gates, the World Economic Forum’s Center for the Fourth Industrial Revolution, Microsoft, the National Security Agency, the National Retail Federation, Eliot Weinman, the Cognitive Computing Consortium, SCIP, AMT, HSBC, Forgerock, Feedzai, LogMeIn, Cognicor, Omron, The Nerdery and The Savo Group. Source Here
Hey! Look, NSA, Melinda "I hoarded food in my basement because I know how privileged we are" Gates, WEF, and Eliot Weinman. And his AI World Government did this press release.
According to Nguyen Anh Tuan, CEO of the Boston Global Forum (BGF), “We have been collaborating with Mr. Weinman and his team at AI World throughout 2018 to support the event as an International Host. We have several activities already underway at AI World 2018, and will continue our strategic alliance for all AI World 2019 events. We will present an AI-Government model at AI World Government.” Source Here
Do you want Skynet Eliot, cause this is how you get Skynet.
But maybe I'm suffering mass psychogenic delusions from Doomscrolling looking for mass surveillance examples and an upcoming war before environmental collapse. Maybe? Possible? Let's look and see if I'm justified in my paranoia.
Lance B Eliot • Neanderthal and AI. Source HereCould the acrimonious polarization in society today be simply due to chance alone, or might we be divided amongst ourselves by inherited Neanderthal DNA that has been triggered in recent times? Let’s hope that we can find a means to overcome the polarization, else we might become an extinct species and then, down the road, perhaps some surviving all-knowing AI might look back one day and snicker that we were ultimately and unknowingly doomed by our Neanderthal forerunners.
You're gonna trigger me, you AI loving Neanderthal monster. Doesn't that sound crazy? Read the article and then tell me that it was written by a human (not that anyone has, it's just a figure of speech).
May 21, 2016 • As you can see, it seems like we managed to avert what could have been a massive economic crisis in the 2008-2009 time frame, and entered into what Mohamed in his 2010 Per Jacobsson lecture referred to as the “new normal” (now widely popularized). We have been somewhat languishing in this new normal and are seemingly trying to just keep ourselves in the new normal, sometimes now referred to as the new new normal. Believing that we are nearing the T-junction, the Figure 1 shows that we are upon a pivot point, perhaps in just the next 2-3 years, and will then swing either toward the boom or the doom, of which the Mohamed as odds-maker suggests are equally likely (50/50 chance). Source Here
Pivot? Boom or Doom? Thank God we don't have any pivots happening.
Obama, 2012, Pivot to Asia • There has been strong perception from China that all of these are part of US' China containment policy.[4] Proponents of this theory claim that the United States needs a weak, divided China to continue its hegemony in Asia. This is accomplished, the theory claims, by the United States establishing military, economic, and diplomatic ties with countries adjacent to China's borders.
Aw crap. Pandemic. The Great Reset. Fourth Industrial Revolution. World Economic Forum. AI World Government. Pivot. Boom or Doom. Pivot to Asia.
All good. Keep Calm and Carry On. There is nothing to fear, but fear itself, and environmental collapse, WW3, AI, Killer Robots, Big Brother, Pandemic, Economic Collapse, Asteroids,1. Magnetic Field Weakening, Famine, and Animal Mass Mortality Events. It's game on. Boom or Doom time. Cats and Dogs living together. Neanderthals worshipping AI. All the worst parts out of the Bible, except we don't get turned to salt. I hope. 2020 isn't over yet. And it probably won't be over in 2021, or 2023, or, 2030. After all, the agenda runs until 2030, doesn’t it?
So is Thomas Siebel and Oracle Siebel Systems supposed to be a homonym for Cebel? Is Eliot Weinman involved somehow, or is it just a coincidence. Is Lance B Eliot gonna be AI President of the Techncracy? Just keep paying attention and stay aware. We might not what is happening, but we know something is, and possibly hidden actors involved in all of it.
Heads up and eyes open. This hasn't even started yet. Talk soon and take care.
1. Trust me, u/arctic-gold-digger was right on the money about space rocks, and I'll show you why in a few posts. And also, thanks to u/WhiteRabbitCaveCA as well as u/UFOS-ARE-DEMONIC The extra dots being connected were a massive help.
submitted by biggreekgeek to conspiracy [link] [comments]

A /r/cscareerquestions College Survival Guide

A /cscareerquestions College Survival Guide

With our final school year beginning, we were reflecting on how lost and confused we were when we first started university. We made a lot of mistakes (still am) along the way, but we’re in a much better place after learning from them and constantly putting ourselves out there. In hopes of shining some light and helping others, we decided to make a comprehensive guide for university students – based on our knowledge/experiences - on how to start your successful CS Career (or gain the wisdom to avoid CS altogether, more on this later).
rishiss Background: I am a 4th year student at UC Irvine majoring in Software Engineering. I am an incoming Software Engineer at a F100 company (received return offer after interning this summer). Before that, I interned at an R & D center for space, a small cloud company, and a small IT company. I have a 3.65 GPA, won a few awards at startup competitions/hackathons, and remain pretty active in my schools CS organizations.
chaitu65c Background: I’m a 4th year student at UC Irvine majoring in Computer Science. I’m currently a SWE Intern at a Unicorn and just wrapped up my 2nd internship at a Live Streaming Company(you can most likely tell who they are if you browse my history LOL). Before this, I interned at my school’s IT department, did research under a professor, and worked on a few small startups that other UCI students were building. I have a 3.3 GPA, won some awards along rishiss and was pretty active in my school’s CS clubs.
Disclaimer: “But rishiss/ and chaitu65c, you don’t work at a Big N, go to a target CS school, why should I take your advice?” You’re absolutely right; we are, by no means, ‘up there’ like some other folks on this sub. And, you don’t have to take our advice! Simply close this tab and do whatever else you want 😊. Our intent is to guide and prepare uni students for a CS career they enjoy, not work at Big N or get the highest TC. Life is much more than a dick-measuring contest, and the earlier you learn that the better.
We have also created a guide with our own personal advice/stories

Please, take this advice with a grain of salt. we’re not Tony Robinson or Tim Apple, we’re just two random reddit users.

Table of Contents:

This guide is divided into the following sections:

Is CS Right For Me?

The way we see it, there’s 3 types of people pursuing CS.
  1. Those who know CS isn’t for them – They’re in it for the money, to appease their parents, for a minorequirement, some external factor. They hated programming while taking the introductory CS course and just try to get done with their class/degree ASAP.
Advice: The majority of people who fall under this usually burn out quickly, as they aren’t motivated enough to learn the material and to apply themselves. This usually leads to them cheating and getting kicked out of their major, minor, or university altogether. Even if you manage to earn a degree, we've seen a large number of these folks endure a 'pre-mature' mid-life crisis or simply get fired from their jobs. Before you even start this major, you should definitely understand that this isn’t going to be easy, and you do have to put in a lot of effort to succeed. If this isn’t your cup of tea, definitely look into switching into another major you like.
Some folks are really passionate about technology, but don't want to pursue an entire Computer Science major or see themselves as Software Engineers. That's completely ok! Try looking into related majors or minors. We know many students who switched from CS to majors like Informatics, Business Information Management, and Economics and are thriving in tech-related roles like Data Analytics, Product Management, UI/UX Design, and Technical Recruiting. CS is not (and should not be) for everyone, and there is no shame in having the wisdom quit and move on.
  1. Those who don’t know if CS is for them – Where most of the CS community is IMO. These folks (like me, rishiss) are riddled with something called Imposter Syndrome: “the constant feeling of not being good enough or knowing enough to do your job well.”
Advice: For students, really take the time to learn and be open to anything you go through. Try sticking it out until you've taken a Data Structures course, one of the harder, more important courses out there. If you're not understanding the material or just aren't having fun with it, it’s definitely ok to switch majors/careers. Otherwise, CS just might be the career for you! Give it your best shot!
Admittedly, it's hard to provide stronger insight to overcoming Imposter Syndrome, as I am afflicted by it as well. For me, my IS derives from constantly comparing myself to others and confusing inexperience with incompetency. As such, I continue to work and focus on myself and take baby steps towards smaller goals I set out for myself. Knowing that I've put the effort to improve myself by just 1% everyday has made me a lot more confident.
  1. Those who know for a fact CS is for them – The diamonds in the rough. Learning and practicing CS material gives them a euphoric high.
Advice: Broaden your scope and learn new areas of CS! Who knows, you might find another new field that you really want to work in. Other than that, definitely make new friends regardless of whether they’re a CS major or not. Even try pursuing other hobbies like weightlifting, reading, dancing, or even public speaking. Don't limit yourself!

Freshman Year

We recommend not taking more than 3-4 classes in your first quartesemester, as you shouold keep an ample amount of time to go to professional/social events, make new friends and hang out with them, and pursue your interests.
We've seen a lot of freshmen (and upperclassmen) CS folks get cooped up in their dorm rooms playing video games and watching TV. We understand that these two are a passion for many, but please be cautious to not get consumed by them.
You have the privilege of pursuing higher education, making valuable connections/memories, and setting up your CS career in the trajectory you want. This year is the best year to take advantage of all that university has to offer; make the most of it.
One of the best ways to get involved in your school’s/region’s CS community is by joining clubs like ACM and WICS and participating in hackathons (see ‘Hackathon’ section below). Try pursuing internships and positions in these organizations and events as well!
One, major issue we see with freshmen (even upperclassmen) is their ignorance on all the avenues available in the CS Industry. So we’ve tried to narrow it down (not exhaustive).
  1. Cyber Security Engineer
  2. Front-End Web Developer
  3. Backend Web Developer
  4. UI/UX Designer
  5. DevOps/Cloud/Site-Reliability Engineers
  6. Mobile Engineer
  7. QA Engineer
  8. Product Manager
  9. Data Scientist (Machine Learning/AI)
  10. Embedded Software Engineer
  11. Systems Administrator
  12. Database Administrator (The Wizards)
  13. Networking Engineer
  14. Hardware Engineer
  15. OS Developer
  16. Video Game Developer
  17. Solutions Architect/Sales EngineeTechnical Account Manager
As a freshman, definitely take the time and see if you can picture yourself doing any of the listed fields. You should open yourself to all facets of CS and not just the “hot field” like Data Science and Machine Learning. Choosing a field because it’s “exciting” will usually lead to bad results as usually, other people are thinking just like you and will lead to over-saturation.
Our recommendation is to select the top 5 fields that have piqued your interest and experiment with the field. For example, if you are interested in Mobile App Development, try learning how to build an Android app from the ground up. A simple weather app or alarm clock is completely suitable for a first project/prototype. This lets you understand what skills you would need for this field and can serve as a forecast as to what your career would look like.
You should definitely look for an internship. Ignore the people that tell you to wait until you’re a junior, as it’s going to be very hard to get an internship if you don’t have any experience. Common places that most students don’t realize are available are usually IT departments at your school and even research with professors. Researching is highly recommended as you can definitely learn more about a field you can be interested in and if you’re interested in graduate school, that’s going to be a letter of recommendation that you can ask for.
If you’re considered a minority in Computer Science, look into first and second year internship programs as they’re meant to help you succeed. Here’s some programs that come to mind:
Google STEP
Microsoft Explore
Amazon Future Engineer
Uber STARInternhip
Facebook University
Another way to get internships is to research into smaller companies in your area. If the company is very small (<100 employees), consider reaching out to the CEO on LinkedIn. They might be able to help you! Also, take advantage of university recruiting websites like Handshake to see companies that directly hire from your school. More info on how to get an internship in the ‘Searching for an Internship’ section.

Sophomore Year

Now that you have basic programming knowledge, create your own website or GitHub account and start contributing to them with small personal projects. Nobody expects you to make a full-stack MERN project hosted and scaled on AWS at this stage. Focus instead on clean code, learning a framework or two on a language you like, and creating a small, robust feature. Grow from there!
If you weren’t able to find an internship/research opportunity as a freshman, community involvement, projects, and hackathons become especially important, as they are a great way to make you stand out on your resume and to recruiters when you reapply. As you brush up on your skills, apply again, and try your luck out.

Data Structures and Algorithms

In addition, you are most likely to take a Data Structures and Algorithms course this year. Make sure you are focusing on this class and writing good notes; you will need this knowledge when interviewing for internships and full-time jobs in the near future. Here is a link to our DS and A course (in C++) for reference

Junior Year

As a junior, companies are more willing to hire you for an internship, as they are likely to convert you into a full-time employee after graduating. This transition process is much easier than interviewing, and they'll usually offer you a higher compensation package if they want to convert you to a full-time employee. As you now should have knowledge of Data Structures and Algorithms, we highly recommend looking into coding interview prep sites like LeetCode and HackerRank or purchasing a prep book like CTCI or EPI (advanced).
Continue to attend hackathons, remain active in clubs/organizations, and grow your portfolio.
Classes will be much harder; expect the time for completing projects to double and the content covered to be much more difficult. We recommend taking no more than 2-3 upper-division CS courses and balancing your load with 1-2 GE classes. You should not be taking more than 16 units (assuming 4 units per course).
Start to get an idea of what field in CS you would like to pursue. Research what it takes to be successful in that field. You can do so by looking up job postings with that title on LinkedIn and looking at the requested skill set or take a look at Roadmap.sh. If you want to learn more about a related skill set and your school doesn't offer a course, consider picking up a class on udemy.com.

Senior Year

Focus heavily on your senior capstone, project classes, etc. as they're the last thing you can put on your resume before applying for full time. By now, you should have at least 3 polished, working projects on your GitHub that you can easily talk about with your recruiter. Preferably, they're aligned with the CS field you wish to enter.
If you were able to get a return offer from an internship, congrats! However, don’t immediately sign the offer. Once you have an offer, you should still try to interview at companies that you’re interested in by the deadline of the time to accept the offer. A good way of doing this is to reach out to a University recruiter for that company and explain the deadline you have. Usually, they’re really helpful and can potentially help skip interviews that you were supposed to do!
In addition, if your friends were able to intern at places you’re interested in, definitely ask for a referral or to send your resume to their recruiter. This usually reduces the risk of being ghosted by that company and increases your chances of getting hired!
Once you finally sign, definitely take the time to relax and enjoy. Just make sure you pass your classes and stay out of trouble

Classes:

What Classes should I take?

Should Already be Required:

Must Take:

Good to Have

How do I succeed in these classes?

rishiss: You’re more than likely coughing up hundreds, if not thousands, to attend university. It makes no sense to not take full advantage of the course and course staff.
The way I take notes: I learn from examples; I want to enter my code into the IDE to see what happens. I do a three way split; Google Docs on the left, IDE on top right and terminal (to compile, see output, make new file, etc) on bottom left. I note down the date and topic of the lecture and write questions I have in the comments on Docs. I make sure to highlight important information and possible test questions. I even share the link with friends!

In the quarters where I followed the steps above, I never got a grade lower than an A-.

Dealing with Bad Professors

During your time in college, you’re likely going to have at least one bad professor that might make it worse if you have to go to class. If that’s the case, it’s definitely fine to not go to class (as long as it’s not mandatory). However, if you do decide not to go, you must make sure you learn the material, so you won’t be behind on the coursework and studying for tests. In addition, you should be doing something productive on the side. If you don’t go to class and spend the time watching Netflix or playing video games, you’re losing time that you can spend on something that might be fun and can help you in the long run.

You can take Graduate Courses!?

chaitu65c: A highly underutilized set of courses you can take would be graduate courses. Graduate courses are usually very specialized in certain fields. If you were able to take all the undergraduate courses you wanted and still have spare classes to fill out, I'd recommend researching into taking Graduate courses! They’re a good way to build out your specialization and learn new, cool stuff! In addition, if you’re looking for classes to reach the required number of CS courses needed, your CS department might allow you to make the course count towards your degree!

Projects

They're super important.

How do I succeed in class projects?

Personal Projects and your CS Career

rishiss: Projects are your saving grace, especially if you are lacking work experience. They show technical aptitude, willingness to take initiative, and leadership. I’ve seen people with only projects on their resume get positions at the Big N. Projects are good ways to expand your knowledge of CS as the possibilities are endless! It is best to have a variety of projects dealing with a variety of technologies. As such, you can open yourself up to more positions and have more talking points during the interview.
I tend to edit the ‘Project’ Section of my resume with relevant projects and technologies. For instance, if I made a full stack web application and applied to a DevOps organization, I would highlight my AWS, CI/CD, and Terraform experiences more than my React/Node js work.
It is recommend the project is about something that motivates you and are passionate about e.g. video games, movies, books, sports, etc., as it is very easy to give up half way due to stress or lack of motivation/interest.
Like anything else in Computer Science, projects require you to break it down into smaller pieces. Start with the end in mind and draw out the intended architecture/functionalities. Start with what you know and research on the parts you don't know after that. You will be using these skills often in industry for any project/feature planning.
Spending 15-30 minutes a day is all you need to make a successful personal project. Don't make excuses and get coding!

Open Source Contributions

If you’ve ever noticed popular github repositories such as torvalds/linux, these are repositories where people from all over the world can report issues with it and someone can fix it. If you are able to make a contribution to a huge open source repository, it looks really good on your resume.

Hackathons

What are Hackathons?

Hackathons are large scale coding events, where students from around the area come together and collaborate - usually in teams of 4 (but you can go solo or with a partner!) - to build some software. Companies like Amazon, Northrop Grumman, Google, and Twilio sponsor awards related to best use of their technology. After 24 - 48 hours of intensive coding, participants submit their projects, whether it be an Android video game, Chrome Extension, productivity web app, etc. Submissions are shared with the companies and other hackathon organizers, where they select the best projects and award teams with swag like keyboards, gift cards, and even summer internships at their company.
Participating in hackathons are one of the best ways to hone your coding skills, network with companies and other students, and get free comfy T-shirts. It is also one of the best ways to gain industry knowledge, as representatives from these companies and hackathon organizers create numerous workshops and answer any questions you may have. Winning awards at these hackathons are also great resume boosters and talking points during interviews.
The biggest hackathon organizer is Major League Hacking. Visit their website, and you can see all the hackathons (remote or local) they are partnered with. Make to be on the lookout for application release dates from the hackathons and apply early.
With Covid, you may miss out on the free goodies and the in-person networking with students and professionals. However, most hackathons are accepting many more applicants due to it being virtual/remote this year.

What Should I Do At Hacakathons?

Take advantage of the resources available at hackathons. You’re attending a mini CS conference and should be, besides coding, networking with professionals, learning about the different companies, attending workshops, asking technical/non-technical questions to mentors, and getting as much free shit as you can get. Besides T-Shirts, companies give out vouchers to their services, applications to their internship and full-time positions, pillows, notebooks, water bottles, sweaters, and even backpacks.
If you’re looking to get an award, judges at hackathons care a lot about the pitch and the idea rather than the actual execution of the idea. Having an idea beforehand is also helpful, so you can spend your time focusing on the MVP.

Friends and Networking

chaitu65c: I think it’s definitely useful if you have two different friend groups: One dedicated to career and Non-Career Group.
Career Group - When making a friend group dedicated to career, try to be the dumbest person in the group, you’re definitely going to learn a lot from them as you soak up knowledge! Best ways of meeting friends who are career-driven can be through major specific orientation (actually how I met rishiss), courses, major related clubs, etc.
Non-Career Group - While having a group that motivates you for your career is important, it’s also important to have another friend group that can help you relax and to enjoy your time! A really good way to find these friend groups can be anywhere from your hall to General Education courses, social clubs like Circle K, fraternities/ sororities(if that’s your cup of tea) and others!
This is what has worked for us; no need to follow this exact format.

Resume

rishiss: Here are the few take-aways on writing a resume that gets through the ATS.

Searching for Internships

Searching for internships in CS is really different and harder from searching for internships in other professions. CS internship interview processes are often longer and much more technical on what you have learned as a CS major. We've prepped 2-3 months beforehand on CS concepts, whiteboarding, etc.

Timeline

This timeline primarily focuses on large, non-government/defense companies or competitive startups. This also assume you are applying for a summer internship.
August - September: Applications are opened to the public. Make sure to look out for positions and apply early, as most companies admit students on a rolling basis. A site that we used often is Apply.fyi. After applying, you may receive an automated (< 48 hours) invitation to complete an Online Assessment, consisting of multiple choice and/or coding questions about Data Structures, Algorithms, and Run Time Complexity. You will have usually 1-2 weeks to complete the assessment. Please that you may be rejected if you are not able to pass 90% of the questions on the assessment: Please also note that you may be instantly rejected due to things out of your control like years of experience, cancellation of internship, internal corporate issues, and more. Don't take rejections too seriously; just keep applying!
October - November: After passing the resume screen and the OA, you will be contacted by the company's recruiter for a phone screen. During the screen, you will probably be asked a few confirmation questions about your resume, sponsorship, years of experience with X, etc. and minor behavioral questions like what made you apply for this position, what are you pursuing outside of class, etc. You may also receive questions about your CS fundamentals e.g. what is a hashtable, whats the difference between a process and a thread, what is the runtime complexity of sorting a string, etc. As long as you're cool and confident (and not cringe/edgy), this part should be a breeze.
November - Mid January: If you made it through the two Thanos snaps, you will be invited to an onsite “Power-Day,” where interviewees attend 2-4 whiteboard interviews while being grilled on their technical skills and projects. Some companies make applicants go through a panel interview, where a team of 2-5 Software Engineers grill you on technical questions and your resume. You are often pampered with free travel, food, stipends, etc.
December - February: If you were deemed a good fit by the hiring committee, you will be extended an offer to intern at the company during the upcoming summer for 10-12 weeks. Remember, nothing is final until you receive an offer letter in your inbox. Some companies may also place you on a wait-list and offer you a spot if someone were to reject their offer letter.
For government orgs, defense companies, and smaller organizations, the recruiting season starts in February/March and usually ends in April and May. After applying online and passing the resume screen, you will usually be immediately pushed to an on-site interview. Most likely, you will be interviewing with your future boss/co-worker.
Please note that internships are not only offered in the summer, they are provided in the Fall, Winter, and Spring (rare) as well. The competition for these internships is usually lower, and the process usually starts 3-4 months beforehand.

How to get the Interview

Besides following resume tips, make sure to apply to as many places as you can. To get our first internships, we recall applying to approximately 250-300 places before we secured our internship plans for that summer. Also, if you do get ghosted, don’t take it personally, usually, university recruiters often spend so much time reviewing a lot of applications.
Other precautions to take to get noticed are to try attending career fairs if you can, you might be able to get an interview(worst case, free swag!). Other than that, try reaching out to upperclassmen or friends you know that interned and ask for referrals. It’s one of the best ways to get noticed!

What to expect

As part of the interview process, there’s 4 types of interviews that you should make sure you know.
Behavioral Interview: These interviews ask you questions about culture fit such as “Why are you a good candidate” and “Tell me about a time when you ...”
Coding/Technical Interview: These interviews ask you questions similar to what you see on Leetcode and Hackerrank. These interviews are designed to test your Data Structures and Algorithms knowledge.
System Design: System Design involves the interviewer testing your building to design a service/software and test your knowledge of understanding what things to use for the task and how you will integrate them together. You’re definitely not expected to know this and it’s not likely you’re gonna get asked this. Places that could ask you this are Unicorns, Trading Companies and Hedge Funds, and Big Established Companies.
Concurrency/Low Level Interviews: If the company’s biggest product involves low level principles such as networking principles and kernel stuff, there’s a possibility you can get asked this. Places that come to mind are hardware companies and trading firms.
Some companies may adopt only one of these interviews and some may adopt all.

How to Ace the Interview

It’s highly recommended that you look up the interview experiences that other students have faced so that you can potentially filter out companies with red flags and know what questions to expect. Common sources to search up on this would be Reddit (csMajors and cscareerquestions), Jumpstart (Relatively new portal for students), Glassdoor and maybe Blind (Aside from the toxic TC or GTFO culture, they do give good advice on interviews). With that said, here’s some advice we have when you approach each kind of interview we’ve seen.

Advice on Behavioral Interviews

Use the STAR method when describing your experiences. Being quantifiable with the impact of your actions will impress the interviewer.

Advice on Technical Interviews

Begin by reviewing your notes from the Data Structures and Algorithms class. Do not proceed further until you know how to implement these DS and As from scratch with the language of your choice(If you do know python, it’s recommended as there’s a lot of builtin features!). After doing so, we highly recommend a book like CTCI and EPI to gain a review on programming language details and your DS and As. Then, visit sites like LeetCode to practice real questions from major companies. A Facebook Engineer completed 600 LC problems and compiled the most important ones into a list here. During the interview, make sure to talk out loud about possible approaches and tradeoffs before whiteboarding. It is perfectly acceptable (often recommended) to ask the interviewer to ask questions about the problem and get clarification. Once you have an idea in mind and have talked about it with your interviewer, begin whiteboarding. While you talk about the final idea you want to use, write out pseudo code and comments about all the steps you need to implement in order to finish coding your solution. After that, start coding. Make sure to have proper function headers, syntax, spacing, classes/structs, imports, etc. After coding your solution, give a brief explanation and attempt to make it run with less space and in less time (if your solution is not as efficient as you think it can be).

Advice on System Design

These are somewhat hard to approach if you don’t have experience ever doing it. If you do have experience designing and building services in your spare time and as part of your work experience, definitely rely on your experience. An important thing is to definitely ask clarifying questions. There might be hidden requirements you didn’t think about that could drastically change the way you approach the solution.

Advice on Concurrency/Low level

Understand basic principles such as Processes vs Threads (A lot of people don’t know the difference!)TCP vs UDP and how to make an application thread safe. Other than that, it’s recommended that you familiarize yourself with basic OS concepts such as Deadlocks, locks that you can utilize to make an application thread safe, etc.

Searching for Full Time Jobs:

The big bucks.
The process for finding a Full-Time Job is usually very similar to finding an Internship. There’s three main differences are:
  1. Harder Questions. Ex: Google usually asks Leetcode Mediums to Hards + the special Leetcode Hard question that Google asks it’s applicants (they create a new one every year).
  2. More Rounds of Interviewing: For example, Microsoft makes interns do 2 rounds while New Grads do 4 rounds during the onsite part of the process.
  3. Compensation: Interns usually get an hourly rate and, possibly, a housing stipend. New grads, however, are given a yearly salary and, possibly, a sign-on bonus, stocks, and benefits e.g. health insurance, vacation days, etc.
The process for finding a Full-time Job won’t really change as much as finding an internship, but keep in mind that the bar is higher. This is probably the biggest reason why you should look into interning early; by getting an offer at the place you like, you don’t need to go through the daunting process of finding a full-time role.
Get as many offers as you can this time around, so you can negotiate and select the position, company, compensation, and location that works best for you.

Negotiation

Negotiation is a really powerful tool that you can use in the interview process, even as an intern. There’s a lot of guides to negotiation and we recommend Nick Singh’s guide (Look at his LinkedIn and newsletters) for more.

Final Thoughts

University is a probably the most important time of your life and a foundational block of your CS Career. Like any foundation, it must be sturdy and takes a tremendous amount and energy of time to develop. Take advantage of all the resources (like this one) you can get your hands on. Definitely learn from the mistakes people have made and make sure you don’t repeat the same mistakes.
‘Stay hungry. Stay foolish’ - Steve Jobs
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